Zika virus outbreak 2016 A widespread epidemic of zika fever caused the zika virus spread to South and North America from Brazil

Zika virus outbreak 2016
A widespread epidemic of zika fever caused the zika virus spread to South and North America from Brazil. The several islands in the pacific and southern Asia are also affected. The World Health Organization (WHO) said the virus was likely to spread throughout most of the Americas by the end of the year. In November 2016, the end of the zika epidemic was announced by the WHO.

WHO declared the outbreak a public Health Emergency of international concern as evidence grew that zika can cause birth defects as well as neurological problems. The virus can be transmitted from an infected pregnant woman to her foetus, and then can cause microcephaly and other severe brain anomalies in the infant. Zika infections in adults can result in Guillain-Barre syndrome. Prior to this outbreak, zika was considered a mild infection, as most zika virus infections are asymptomatic, making it difficult to determine precise estimates of the number of cases in approximately 1 in 5 cases, zika virus infections result in zika fever, a minor illness that causes symptoms such as fever and rash.

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The virus is commonly spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which is normally found throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Aedes albopictus mosquito can also spread it, which is distributed as far north as the Great Lakes region in North America. Men infected with zika can transmit the virus to their sexual partners.

A number of countries have issued travel warnings, and the outbreak is expected to reduce tourism significantly. Other countries have advising their citizens to delay pregnancy until the virus is known deeply and its impact on fatal development. Regarding the safety of athletes and spectators at the 2016 summer Olympics in Rio Janeiro the outbreaks raised concerns.

Is zika dangerous sickness
Yes is a dangerous sickness. The World Health Organisation says that the congenital brain abnormalities are caused by Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Microcephaly is also included, which can mean babies are body with small heads and hindered brain development, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, which is a serious autoimmune disorder.
Transmission
Zika is a mosquito-borne disease. The resurgence of Aedes aegypti’s worldwide distribution over the past 2-3 decades makes it one of the most widely distributed mosquito species. In 2015, in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the Americas the Aedes albopictus, reaching as far North as the Great Lakes of North America and, internationally living alongside Aedes aegypti in some tropical and subtropical regions.

The Aedes aegypti mosquito usually bites in the morning and afternoon hours, and can identified by the white stripes on its legs. The mosquito species (Aedes aegypti, mainly, and Aedes albopictus) that can spread zika virus can also spread dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

Zika can also be sexually transmitted between partners of both genders. Sexual transmission of zika has been documental in 9 countries namely Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the United States during this outbreak.

Global warming can be the cause of spread of the sickness
Climatic factors affect Aedes aegypti in a number of ways. Faster development during the aquatic life stages is enabled by warmer temperatures and greater survival rates at all life stages. Precipitation, which can be affected climate change, provides water needed to complete aquatic life stages.

With growing concerns that climate variations, such as El Nino, and global warming could trigger outbreaks of disease, a National Research Council committee has taken an in-depth look at the issue.

Mosquitos they tend to thrive best in warm, wet climates, giving rise to concerns that future climate change may help them multiply and even spread into new parts of the North American continent. This would be more than a mere annoyance to humans, the significant public health risk could pose it is warned by scientists.

Other additional sickness
Yellow fever
Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The yellow means the jaundice that affects some patients. In tropical areas of Africa and central and South America it is the endemic virus. Large epidemics of yellow fever occur when infected people introduce the virus into heavily populated areas with high mosquito density and where most people have little or no immunity, due to lack of vaccination. In these conditions, the virus from person to person is transmitted by the infected mosquitoes of the Aedes aegypti specire.

Is yellow fever a dangerous sickness?
Yes it is. Yellow fever can be a highly dangerous disease, found mostly in parts of Africa, Central America, the Caribbean and South America. The disease is most dangerous to those who are unvaccinated, causing high fevers, headaches, vomiting, light sensitivity and loss of appetite. This yellow fever is the most dangerous sickness; it is deadly virus and has no treatment.

Global warning could be the cause of the spread of the sickness
Climate warming is allowing disease-causing bacteria, viruses and fungi to move into new areas where they may harm species as diverse as lions and snails, butterflies and humans, a study suggests. Restricted pathogens by seasonal temperatures can invade new areas and find new victims as the climate warms and seasons changes like winters grow milder. Climate change is disrupting natural ecosystem in a way that is making life better for infectious disease.

Transmission
Yellow fever virus is an RNA virus that belongs to the genius flavivirus. By the bite of the infected Aedes or Haemagogus species mosquito the yellow fever is transmitted. Mosquitoes get the virus by feeding on infected humans or non-humans (primates) and can transmit virus to other primates. People that are infected by yellow fever are infectious to mosquitoes
Reference list
Bowers, J.Z., ; King, E.E. 1981. The conquest of yellow fever: The Rockefeller Foundation J. Med. Soc. N. J. 78:539-541.

Davis, K. 1987. Current deadly virus. Sandton: Eduprint.

Edhanom, T. 2017. Zika virus and potential complications. World Health Organization. Available at: http://www.who.int/features/qa/zika/en/ Accessed 14 jun.2017.

Kelly, V. ; Weight, D. 1999. Knowledge attitudes and practices: Zika virus disease and potential complications resource pack. America: Washington.
Peterson, R. 2016. Zika virus and birth defects: reviewing the evidence for causality. Johannesburg: Elsevier.

Schilthuis, H. ; Connor, B. 2012. Travel health knowledge, attitudes and practices among United States travelers. J Travel Med. 11:23-26.

Vlas, S. ; Hamer, D. 2004. Factors determining use of pre-travel preventive health services. West Africa: The Netherlands.

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