The transmission of a nerve impulse results from electrical changes across from one end a membrane of a neuron to another. Polarization is established when there is a difference in electrical charge between the outside and inside of a membrane. To maintain polarization, an excess of sodium ion (Na+) on the outside and excess of potassium ions (K+) on the inside is maintained. Through a chain of chemical events of transmission, the dendrites which are part of the neuron picks up impulse through the axon to the next neuron.Introduction
The nervous system consists of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system is subdivided into the brain and spinal cord where it regulates and interacts with several body functions, whiles the peripheral nervous system sends sensory messages in and out of the central nervous system. The peripheral nervous system which is subdivided into the somatic nervous system controls the voluntary movement of the muscles and the autonomic nervous system controls involuntary movement. The nervous system collaborates with the endocrine system to maintain homeostasis. The nervous system achieves homeostasis by reacting to receptors which send nerve impulses to the brain as a regulating center.
The nervous system controls the skeletal muscle movement stimulated by an electrical signal channeled through by the motor neuron. This motor neuron is located in the middle of the muscle cell.
Botulism is a disease condition that prevents the muscle from releasing acetylcholine from the end of the nerves in muscles. As a result of this, the blockage destroys the site where the acetylcholine will bind. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter released by neurons that stimulate skeletal muscle controlled by the central nervous system which is responsible for communication between muscle cell and motor neurons. Clostridium botulinum causes descending paralysis when acetylcholine release in the cell is disrupted. When there is disruption of exocytosis or neurotransmitters signal transmission of a nerve impulse to a muscle to contract is compromised.