The most effective one according to Rubin are the Learning strategies

The most effective one according to Rubin are the Learning strategies , as they are the ones that contribute directly to the language system constructed by the student , This involves two types of strategies :

A- Cognitive Learning Strategies : These strategies are a set of operations used in learning that require direct analysis , Rubin here included Six main cognitive strategies that contribute directly to language learning : clarification/verification, guessing ; deductive reasoning, practice; memorization ,Monitoring.

B-Metacognitive learning Strategies: these strategies on the other hand , are used to regulate or self-directed language learning, they involve some processes like : Planning, Goal-setting , and self-management