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“Airport Waste minimization Strategic plan and Implementation”

Introduction:
Airport operation has been huge increased from last many years, which eventually increase passenger on the airport. Increase in the number of passenger and airport operation provoke the airport waste and it has negative impact on the airport environment, society and even worldwide.
From the past few decades ICAO is encouraging to emphasize on the reduction of airport waste. Airport waste contain of different wastes like; Airline offices waste, Airline employees waste, airport kitchen waste, passenger waste, cargo waste and there are some further categories like solid waste, liquid waste, green waste etc. All these different waste make airport waste management team difficult to handle, separate and reduce from airport. Therefore, our team decided to make an effective strategic plan to minimize airport waste from airport in order to keep airport passenger friendly.
Airport waste cannot reduce through a single organization. It can be minimize by engaging stakeholders to work under a same umbrella. United States itself creates 40% of the world’s waste and almost 20% of that waste is recycling which indicates that even United States is unable to minimize airport waste. Different airport face multiple level of waste management problem. A small number of airport face disposal management problem and draining problem or airport other waste management problem. Airport waste management is the integral part of environment management Therefore, it cannot be neglected.
This document includes Airport waste management strategy to 2018 to enable the 2030 goals. It addresses:
• Global impact of airport waste.
• Sources of waste production.
• Current performance of airport waste management.
• Executive Summary.
• Strategic waste management plan.
• Goal of waste management plan.
• Objectives of waste management plan.
• Stakeholder’s engagement in waste management plan.
• Waste management plan implementation.
• Leading waste management plan.
• Monitoring effectiveness of waste management plan
• Recommendations
• SWOT analysis
• Conclusion
This document further discuss the how worldwide aviation industry have been polluted and what are the consequences of airport waste on worldwide. This document also issues through examination thoroughly problem of current airport waste management and their disposal. This document conclude by the coordinated approach which is airport waste minimization strategic plan can be used at all level in aviation industry.
Global Impact of Airport waste:
Waste is creating significant global issues and challenges for living including humans and animals. But Global waste is also a problem on a massive volume for plants, air and water. Air is becoming more pollutant by burning of plastic and through the smoke emits from factories. This poisonous smoke includes toxic which absorb by clouds and when it rains, soil is also becoming polluted. Polluted Soil not just decreases the growth level of plants but also generate disease for plants.
From many studies it has been discovered that, Airport has negative effect on the environment in term of air pollution, noise pollution, waste production etc. World widely, different process uses at airport to remove the waste. Collecting waste from airport and disposing of that waste has huge environmental impacts and can cause stern problems. In United Kingdom, Airport waste is disposed in the landfill sites, special holes and digs. Much of those waste eventually degrade but remaining waste generate smell and methane gas, which ultimately cause problem for human, animals, air and soil.
Airport waste also removed by Incineration process, in this process airport is burn and waste also include plastic. When plastic burns in generate toxic chemicals like dioxide which is not good for human health and it also disturbing the Greenpeace. In other words there is a danger that Ecological system can be rapidly disturbed by the production of waste and removing process of that waste.
Studies reveal that, Airport waste generation is increasing at the rate of 3% per year. It means that waste management should focus on the source from the waste generate. Therefore, waste production can be reduced through their source. Purpose of the waste management is that to reduce the amount of waste being produced. It will also reduce the disposal cost and it will have not any negative impact on the environment.

Reduction of waste from it source requires;
1. Top management commitment
2. Implementation of waste management plan
3. Strong legislation
4. Rule and regulation
5. Effective Supervision
6. Enhances Education and awareness
Sources of waste generation:
1. Air Field
At Air field waste usually generate by the aircraft operations. It includes Runway Rubbers, Green waste and FOD etc.
2. Terminal
Waste at the terminal produced by the restaurants, shops, passengers and employees etc. Waste contains of food waste, paper, plastic, Aluminum can, trash, grease, oil, green waste and Deplaned waste.
3. Cargo Hanger
Much of the waste airport is generated at cargo hanger while the movement of goods. This waste includes plastic, wood, empty boxes, Vehicle waste (Tires and Fluids) and chemicals.
4. Aircraft
Aircraft itself produce waste. Passengers in the aircraft generate waste within the aircraft. Sometime waste is also generated by the ground support equipments, which assist the aircraft to operate. In this waste vehicle waste, plastic, waste water and hazmat present.
5. Airport Construction
While during the construction of the airport much of the waste the produce, which in fact can be hazardous if it not removes accordingly planed.
This waste is produce by;
• Construction
• Re-construction
• Demolition
Waste that can be generated include asphalt, concrete, soil, waste of plastic and wood, building material and general waste etc.
6. Flight Kitchen
Flight kitchen produce cousin for the flight and much of the waste generated by flight kitchen is organic waste food, waste water, plastic, wood and rappers etc.
7. Administration offices
Waste is also generates in the offices of airlines and aviation authorities employees. This waste includes food waste, plastic, aluminum cans, printer ink and trashes etc.
Current performance of airport waste management
Airport usually has a specific waste management system or plan through airport waste is controlled or reduced within a time frame. Like Auckland Airport is currently started a waste minimization strategic plan to reduce the waste. This plan is so much sophisticated, adoptable and achievable. It also does not have much cost.
Allama Iqbal International Airport
AIIA do not have any specific plan to control and reduce the airport waste. All the airport waste is handled and disposed by the Lahore waste management Company. This company is not just handling waste of airport although it gathers and disposes the whole Lahore waste. At Allama Iqbal International Airport there are not as such preventive measures to reduce the waste. There are also fewer dustbins. There is not as such recycle technology, equipments and process at AIIA airport as it present in Germany and United States.
Lack of awareness, lack of technology, lack of waste management plan is the cause of generating the noise pollution, air pollution which is seriously dangerous for the health of surrounding societies to the Allama Iqbal International Airport. Due to increase in the pollution and lack of dumping and recycle process is also can cause the health issues like cancer, breathing problems and stunted growth etc.
Why Allama Iqbal International Airport need waste management plan?
Allama Iqbal International Airport is located in Lahore. Lahore city total area is 1,772 km² and its total population is 11.13 million according to 2017 census. It indicates that Lahore city is small but its population is higher than its area. If proper preventive measures, technology, methods haven’t use in near future at AIIA there is much possibility of spreading any disease and health issue in Lahore city. 98% population of Lahore is Muslim. And according to Islam it is the part of Muslim Umm’ah to keep them clean and surrounding.
Holy Prophet Muhammad S.A.W said that, “Cleanliness is half the faith (Emaan)”.
Therefore, waste management; control can’t be neglect because it is the integral part of Muslim Faith.
How waste management plan can be implemented at Allama Iqbal International Airport?
There are some following step through waste management plan can be implemented at Lahore airport.
• Sophisticated waste management plan to be made.
• Plan should be simple and sustainable.
• Plan should be achievable within time period.
• Plan should be cost effective.
• Enhance the awareness in common people as well as in the employee at airport.
• Seminars to be arranged for proper awareness.
• Enforce to adopt innovation, new process and technology to reduce waste.
• Focus to made airport eco-friendly.
• Engagement of all level of organization working at airport in waste management plan.
• Engagement of all level of employee in waste management plan.
• Involve government organization (Lahore waste management company) for better outcome.
Executive Summary
Airport waste minimizing strategic plan is to create and implement effective waste management plan through which waste at airport can be minimize within a specific time frame. This goal will be achieved by setting certain objective. Those entire objectives will be backed by the supporting implementation plan goals. This plan needs to be implementing through higher management, that’s why commitment of higher management should be serious to implement and enforce airport waste minimizing plan.
From different studies it have been seen that, airport waste cannot be minimize unless the airport authorities, govt. and private stakeholder do not put pressure and take action. For the implementation of this plan a specialized team will be required which will implement and supervise this plan. Moreover, airport waste minimizing plan will be the integral part of integrated management system. When all the stakeholders (Govt. and private) involved in this, then airport waste minimizing plan can be implementing through an efficient way.
Airport waste management strategic plan enable from 2018 to 2030. Within the timeframe of plan, different goals have to be achieved. In this modern technology, innovation, awareness regarding control and minimization of waste will be adopted. Seminars will be arranged for the guidance of employee. Furthermore, General guidance and education for the public will also be encouraged. Awareness within the passengers will also be generated by modern electronic ways (Internet). At the same time awareness of waste management and control will be given to the passengers at airport through employees, posters, screening advertisement and billboard etc.
Airport waste minimizing plan is an elaborated plan which not just focus on the waste reducing at landside (Terminal, check-in) but also encourage to reduce waste at airside (Ramp, hanger etc). A simple strategic policy will be able to cover both landside and airside waste reduction. Airport waste minimizing waste plan is itself unique plan because it not just cover land and airside waste control but it also encourage to waste minimization within the aircraft. Waste will also be reduce within the aircraft like plastic bags, cans etc. There will be certain benefit of the reducing waste from airport. First of all, waste reduction will able to control environmental changes like noise pollution, soil pollution as well as air pollution. Due to this pollution different disease is spreading on Earth. But at the same time temperature, atmosphere and Soil of Earth is also effecting rapidly.
There is possibility that, if within 10 year’s these pollution will not be controlled then result will be catastrophic. And there are chances that percentage of children illness will be double by current percentage. Meanwhile, certain disease like asthma, stroke, stunted growth, lung cancer and respiratory problem etc will be common in the after 10 years.
Airport waste minimizing plan is constructed by keeping each factor in mind regarding future prediction. This plan not just focus on removing waste from airport but it also focus on the controlling disease that because of waste and waste pollution. Airport waste minimizing plan constructed is this way to ensure that airport will not be the responsible of any passenger, visitor or employee disease. Purpose of that plan is to mitigate all kind of possibility of disease and make a peaceful and clean airport for better air transportation. Furthermore, this plan will make sure that; airport is clean and better place for all people who works and travel from there.
Airport waste minimizing strategic plan (Slogan)
It’s the responsibility of all level of employee to keep the airport clean and follow the airport waste minimizing strategic plan. And generate the awareness of keeping airport clean in the passenger, visitor and others.
Goal
“Goal of waste minimization strategic plan is to reduce the waste from their source at airport within specific time of reframe by using optimum resources”.

Vision
“Reduction of all kind of waste from airport by all possible mean to keep airport passenger friendly”
Objectives
There are following objectives of waste minimizing plan described below,
• Reduction of waste from airport (Landside, Airside) by all possible mean at the end of 2030.
• Generate awareness in employee as well as general public.
• Within the initial five year pre described plan will be used to avoid any mistake.
• Usage of the modern technology and encourage innovation of Pakistani student, employee and scientist.
• Open Feedback and suggestion will be taken from public, passengers and employees.
• Stakeholder engagement through meetings and make them also responsible to mitigate the waste from airport area.
• Make an airport land more eco-friendly. Maintain the environment safe for passenger and employees.
• To generate awareness and motivation in top management the leading team of waste management plan will arrange seminars and meeting with higher level of management.
• A proper plan will be distribute in all department of airport to keep the work place safe and healthy.
• Support the re-cycling and other possible procedure and techniques to reduce the waste.
What is stakeholders and How to engage the stakeholder in airport waste minimizing strategic plan?
First of all we have to understand that what is stakeholder?
“Stakeholder is any person, organization or partner which directly or indirectly effected by the company. In this stakeholder can be affected positively and negatively”.
In airport we have two kinds of stakeholders.
1. Internal Stakeholder
2. External Stakeholder
In internal stakeholders it includes employee, owners, partners, civil aviation authority etc. But in external stakeholder it includes general public, community, media, govt. etc.

For the engagement of stakeholders following step will be adopted.
• Before implementing airport waste strategic plan meeting or seminars will be held with all kind of stakeholders.
• All meeting or seminar will be given by the team leaders of strategic waste management plan.
• In these meeting, team leaders will define the strategic plan briefly and present it in front of stakeholders.
• Team leaders will also explain them how stakeholder will implement this plan in their work.
• Team leaders will define the main responsibility of stakeholder in strategic waste management plan.
• During these sessions it will also ensure that, stakeholders will encourage this plan.
• It will also ensure that, stakeholder will encourage the general public as well. For that purpose finance will also be given to them.
• An open session will also be done to take suggestion and feedback.
• To keep the stakeholder motivated different activities will also be done at airport at all level.
• Surprise and gift will also be given to those stakeholders whom performance will be distinguished then others.
What is airport waste minimizing strategic plan and how we can reduce waste from their sources?
Airport waste minimizing strategic plan built up by keeping all factors in the minds how we can reduce the waste at airport. We cannot stop waste generation but somehow we can mitigate the waste from its source through some tactics. Mitigation of waste generation can help to keep airport clean as well as it will reduce effort of waste on the community and it will also reduce the possibility of disease spreading in employee, passenger and community.
Let’s look at the part which we have a focus to reduce waste from the source of waste;

Passenger waste within aircraft:
While during a flight passenger create waste within aircraft. Crew offers the passenger food within aircraft. And also serve passenger soft bottles, cold drink etc. After eating passenger usually throw plastic rappers, disposable glasses and soft drink cans under the passenger seat. Another kind of waste is collected during a flight which called as lavatory waste. It contains of human waste. Dumping of that waste on some empty place or in ocean is not acceptable. There should be an appropriate and effective way to mitigate lavatory waste. Moreover, there should be an appropriate method to control the other waste within flight.
How we can reduce deplaned waste and in-flight waste?
There are some negative effects of this waste. Like after a flight lavatory waste collection from aircraft is time consuming, and it requires cost and labors as well. On the other hand cleaning of aircraft from inside also requires labors and behind a proper management team to handle the cleaning process. Collection of lavatory waste is somehow a little bit hard because it has many steps like collection, dumping, and then cleaning of aircraft with blue juice etc. And even a single leakage can spread the waste all over at ramp.

Steps to reduce the In-flight waste:
There are few steps through we can reduce the waste within aircraft. We cannot eliminate the waste at all but somehow, by taking few necessary active steps we can minimize the waste within aircraft.
• Make a proper plan to mitigate waste within aircraft.
• Effective management controlling and implementation of plan.
• Generate awareness in the passenger and general public.
• After serving food to passenger encourage the passenger to not throw waste in aircraft and put it in plastic bag.
• In flight passenger encouragement and give them motivation through announcement of crew.
• At airport different poster can be placed at places like terminal to motivate passenger before flight.
• Poster include saying, “Go to bathroom before going to inboard”. This way lavatory waste can be controlled if passenger do that.
• Few posters can be placed within aircraft which will get attention of passengers. On these posters there will be written a clear message. And that message will be
“Keep me clean”.

Few other methods for the reduction of deplaned waste
It is estimated that, 20% of a commercial service airports municipal solid waste is from deplaned waste. Different analysis, estimations shows that 40% of this total could be readily recycled at airport or outside airport For example, plastic bottles signify about 1% of deplaned waste and cans with mixed paper being the major part that is without complexity recyclable.
There are few of airlines which participants that would need to be involved in wisely addressing deplaned waste, including purchase, in-flight catering, flight attendant services, and cabin cleaning etc. There is great unpredictability among airlines in their approach to recycling deplaned waste, and significant opportunity for development and betterment.
Airports can play an important role in working with closely to airlines, to providing sufficient facilities for recycling deplaned waste. Poor communication between airline and airport there is a greater possibility that, most of waste cannot be recycling or disposed properly and it can go into trash.
An airline is authorized to set up own deplaned waste recycling process, disposal and management. But we suggest the closer airline work with the airport. There is possibility the more airline will work close to airport management, more they can control the waste production. In this way reduction of waste can be possible through an active approach of collaborative working.
Education and Training:
• Initial step of airline to work closely with airport waste management authority is to generate awareness through giving proper education and training to their employees.
• Top management commitment.
• Identify resources both airline and airport waste management authority.
• Make an integrated plan to control and mitigate the waste from airport.
• Initially set goals to achieve bigger task.
• Make a team to lead that plan and supervise it.
• Execute the plan according to time.
• Use updated technology as well simple methods to reduce waste.
• Continuous improvement.
Why top management commitment is necessary?
Without top management commitment it is also impossible to lead any project or work to it final stage. If top management is not interested in the project or work in this way employee will not focus on the work or project. In this way whole project will fall. In the waste minimization strategic plan top management commitment is so much necessary because without forcing and encouragement of top management this project can fall. Therefore, top management has to play own part as well.
Usage to Technology to reduce the deplaned waste:
In this modern era different kind of process used worldwide to mitigate the deplaned waste. Almost 20% is the deplaned waste at airport if we estimate this from total waste at airport. Some of this deplaned waste recycle and make it reusable but few of that waste recycled outside of airport because of restriction.
Monitoring the performance:
Performance monitoring is the ideal case to get to know that, either employee is doing as company planed. Its help any company to achieve their designed objectives. For the monitoring of waste minimization strategic plan special team which will lead this program will monitor the performance of all employees. These monitoring can be daily, weekly and monthly basis. Monitoring team will also monitor the technology is using appropriately to reduce the waste. In this technology recycling machines, disposal methods and dumping etc included.

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