Saint Louis University School of Engineering and Architecture Department of Chemical Engineering A Fieldtrip Report Presented to the Faculty of Department of Chemical Engineering School of Engineering and Architecture Saint Louis University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering Submitted by

Saint Louis University
School of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Chemical Engineering

A Fieldtrip Report Presented to the
Faculty of Department of Chemical Engineering
School of Engineering and Architecture
Saint Louis University

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering

Submitted by:
Mapalo, Ariane Mae Z.
Class No.: 19 ID No.:2131330

Submitted to:
Engr. Jonalyn A. Kimpay

April 17, 2018
GMA 12

Location: Barangay San Roque, San Manuel, 2438 Pangasinan
Date of visit: Jan. 9, 2017

I. Introduction
The Power to Energize Lives
To excel in generating electric energy in the safest and most reliable manner, exceed our customers’ service expectations, and ensure our long term productivity and profitability while performing our responsibilities as a good corporate citizen.
We will affirm our reputation for a strong commitment:
• To the best and most effective management and operating systems;
• For exemplary health, safety and environmentally sound practices;
• To the advancement of human resources;
• For an enduring adherence to the highest ethical standards of good corporate citizenship.
The SRMP has an installed rated capacity of 435 megawatts (MW). It operates primarily as a peaking plant during periods each day when the electrical output of base and inter-mediate load power plants cannot fulfill consumer demand. Capacity of 85 MW, which is the basis for the capacity payments under the PPA. The balance is surplus power that reduces dependence on imported fuel oil and also lowers the variable operating expenses of other power plants.
The SRMP offers substantial power benefits in addition to the peaking capacity and energy considered in the economic analysis conducted by NPC and the National Economic Development Authority. Most of these benefits are unique to large hydroelectric facilities.
II. History


OCTOBER 14,1987 SRPC joins the Philippine Stock Exchange.
1998 Construction of the dam.
FEBRUARY 14, 2003 Completion of the dam’s construction.
MAY 1, 2003 Start of the operation.

III. Products

POWER GENERATION SRMP has an installed capacity of 435 MW producing approximately 1,000 GWh/year, providing renewable peaking energy to the Luzon Power Grid. As a peaking power plant, SRMP provides the Luzon Power Grid with an additional dependable capacity of 110 MW even during periods of extreme drought.
SRMP uses a 230kV Transmission Line traversing the 9-kilometer distance from the power plant to San Manuel Substation. The line spans with 25 steel towers and 2-bundle double circuit conductors equipped with advanced protection and communication system for power transmission.

IRRIGATION The project provides year-round irrigation to 21,000 hectares of farmlands in the province of Pangasinan with the completion of the Agno River Integrated Irrigation Project of the National Irrigation Administration.

IMPROVED WATER QUALITY The reservoir’s substantial dead storage serves as a settling basin by trapping sediments transported by the runoff of typhoons or the tailings generated by unregulated small-scale mining activities upstream. The deposition of these sediments greatly improves water quality for downstream irrigation.

FLOOD ATTENUATION The San Roque reservoir has a large holding capacity of 525 million cu. m. active storage and 120 million cu. m. flood surcharge where inflow during heavy rains are stored and gradually released downstream. This attenuates the perennial flooding of the river.
If necessary, during extreme flood events, the Flood Forecasting and Warning System for Dam Operations of the National Power Corporation in coordination with the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration, regulates the volume of water to be released by specifying the appropriate spillway gate openings to SRPC based on extensive meteorological and flow gauge data transmitted to the dam via redundant communication systems.

IV. Manufacturing Process

FIGURE A.1 Manufacturing process.
In nature, energy cannot be created or destroyed, but its form can change. In generating electricity, no new energy is created. Actually one form of energy is converted to another form. To generate electricity, water must be in motion. This is kinetic (moving) energy. When flowing water turns blades in a turbine, the form is changed to mechanical (machine) energy. The turbine turns the generator rotor which then converts this mechanical energy into another energy form — electricity. Since water is the initial source of energy, we call this hydroelectric power or hydropower for short.
At facilities called hydroelectric powerplants, hydropower is generated. Some powerplants are located on rivers, streams, and canals, but for a reliable water supply, dams are needed. Dams store water for later release for such purposes as irrigation, domestic and industrial use, and power generation. The reservoir acts much like a battery, storing water to be released as needed to generate power.
The dam creates a head or height from which water flows. A pipe (penstock) carries the water from the reservoir to the turbine. The fast-moving water pushes the turbine blades, something like a pinwheel in the wind. The waters force on the turbine blades turns the rotor, the moving part of the electric generator. When coils of wire on the rotor sweep past the generator=s stationary coil (stator), electricity is produced.
This concept was discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831 when he found that electricity could be generated by rotating magnets within copper coils.
When the water has completed its task, it flows on unchanged to serve other needs.
Transmitting Power
Once the electricity is produced, it must be delivered to where it is needed — our homes, schools, offices, factories, etc. Dams are often in remote locations and power must be transmitted over some distance to its users.
Vast networks of transmission lines and facilities are used to bring electricity to us in a form we can use. All the electricity made at a powerplant comes first through transformers which raise the voltage so it can travel long distances through powerlines. (Voltage is the pressure that forces an electric current through a wire.) At local substations, transformers reduce the voltage so electricity can be divided up and directed throughout an area.
Transformers on poles (or buried underground, in some neighborhoods) further reduce the electric power to the right voltage for appliances and use in the home. When electricity gets to our homes, we buy it by the kilowatt-hour, and a meter measures how much we use.

V. Quality Control Procedures
The SRMP improves the quality of the water in the Lower Agno River via a proactive integrated watershed management plan (IWMP) and by trapping sediments caused by erosion and by such other sources as small-scale mining.
Integrated watershed management planning is a cooperative effort by watershed residents, government and other stakeholders to create a long term plan to manage land, water and related resources on a watershed basis.
VI. Instrumentation and Process Control
The instruments that are often used in a hydroelectric company are flow meter, valves, pressure meters, and level indicator. Often than not, these were manipulated to acquire a bigger quantity of power that is to be distributed among the people. Also, the foundations that are supporting the dam is the most crucial part since there is a limitation on its water capacity.
VII. Waste Generation, Control and Management
As a forefront of renewable energy, the hydropower plant serves as the catch basin for dirt, trash, and all other wastes produced and traversed by the flow of water in the rivers it connects to. The reservoir, as designed like a settling tank, accumulates dissolved and undissolved solids through sedimentation. This produces tons of sludge at the bottom of the basin. Also, other wastes carried by the river are screened out by the use of racks and screens.
As for the control and management for powerplants, the design of the dam is so constructed that flow of water is lowered in that settlement of dissolved solids may be accomplished. Also, removal of other wastes is conducted regularly prior entering the area of the reservoir where water is fed to the dam intake, while regular cleaning of the racks and screens are done to prevent clogging of the intake of the penstock reducing the capacity of the dam and ultimately the power produced of the dam. Sludge accumulate at the bottom of the dam is also removed by slurry pumps. These are sent to third party contractors for treatment and disposal.

VIII. Roles or Jobs of a Chemical Engineer
Environmental Assistant
Assists in coordinating, monitoring and reporting the compliance with all applicable environmental obligations to ensure delivery of commitments made in the government-approved Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan and the Environmental Compliance Certificate and other Environmental Permits issued for the Project. He/She coordinates and supervises site-specific environmental monitoring and data collection program.
Safety Engineer
He/she assists the Health and Safety Officers with Health and Safety monitoring activities, provides clerical support to the Health and Safety Committee and Safety Officers Forum, and reviews and records checks on all fire exits, fire and fire equipment, and fire signs and other safety related facilities.

IX. Observations and Recommendations
There is no tourguide provided by the company to somehow enlighten us, students, about the company’s profile and manufacturing processes involved. The company only gave us a pamphlet that summarizes their company’s profile which can also be found at their official website,
From thermodynamics, we have learned that when generating electricity from a water reservoir, such as the dam or falls, that the higher the fall or the impact of the water to that of the ground more electricity is generated.

Date of Visit: January 9, 2017

I. Introduction
We enrich the lives of Filipinos everywhere with superior Entertainment and the responsible delivery of News and Information.
“We are the most respected, undisputed leader in the Philippine broadcast industry and the recognized media innovator and pacesetter in Asia. We are the Filipinos’ favorite network. We are the advertisers’ preferred partner. We are the employer of choice in our industry. We provide the best returns to our shareholders. We are a key partner in promoting the best in the Filipino.

II. History
“The company’s roots can be traced back to then Loreto F. de Hemedes Inc., owned by Robert “Uncle Bob” Stewart, an American war correspondent. (GMA Network) The company started with the launching of its first AM radio station in Manila through Radio Broadcasting Station, DZBB. It went on air on March 1, 1950 using the 594 kHz of the AM band, broadcasting from the Calvo Building in Escolta, Manila. (GMA Network) Its early radio coverage highlights were the crash of President Ramon Magsaysay’s plane in Mount Manunggal; the eruption of Mount Hibok-Hibok and various local elections in the Philippines. (GMA Network) DZBB became the first radio station in the Philippines to use telephones for live interviews. (GMA Network)” (GMA Network, 2017)

Within years since its first broadcasts, the huge triumph of the station and its growing number of listeners made clear the move to modern facilities in EDSA, Quezon City, with the work done in 1959. (GMA Network) (GMA Network, 2017)
“On October 29, 1961, the company launched its first television station, RBS TV Channel 7 using local VHF channel 7. In 1963, DYSS Television was launched in Cebu. (GMA Network) Also in the same year, from Loreto F. de Hemedes Inc, the firm was formally renamed to Republic Broadcasting System, Inc. In 1975, a triumvirate composed of Gilberto Duavit Sr., Menardo Jimenez and Felipe Gozon took over the management. In 1996, the company changed its corporate identity to GMA Network Inc. (GMA Network)” (GMA Network, 2017)
“In the 1960’s, Stewart started its television station through RBS TV Channel 7 in the DZBB-TV station on October 29, 1961, the Philippines’ third terrestrial television station. (GMA Network) Originally, RBS’s programming is composed of foreign programs from the United States and it later produced local programs to cater Filipino audiences. (GMA Network) It produced shows like Uncle Bob’s Lucky Seven Club, a child-oriented show aired every Saturdays; Dance Time with Chito; Lovingly Yours, Helen; GMA Supershow (formerly Germside and then Germspesyal) and various news programs like News at Seven. (GMA Network) And in 1963, RBS launched its first provincial television station in Cebu, DYSS Channel 7 (now GMA Cebu). (GMA Network) In the same year, from Loreto F. de Hemedes Inc, the firm was formally renamed to Republic Broadcasting System, Inc. (GMA Network)”

III. Products
GMA Networks, Inc. produces TV and radio programs with varying purposes from news broadcasting to entertainment.
“News casting programs include Balita Pilipinas Ngayon, Balitanghali, Balitanghali Weekend, News to Go, News TV Live, News TV Breaking News, News TV Quick Response Team, State of the Nation with Jessica Soho, Saksi, 24 Oras and 24 Oras Weekends. (Balitanghali)” (GMA Network, 2017)
“Programs for lifestyle includes Home Base, Mommy Manual, Taste Buddies, The Working Class, Turbo Zone, Feed Your Drive!.” (GMA Network, 2017)
As for entertainment, game shows including Eat Bulaga!, Wowowin and Celebrity Bluff, variety shows, afternoon prime time dramas and night prime time shows are within the category.

IV. Manufacturing process
This is a general procedure in making films and television shows. The director of photography (DP) is in charge of the shoot. He or she sets up the camera angles and shots and supervises the camera operators. The production designer creates the physical vision of the show and designs the environments where the action takes place. The gaffer is the primary lighting technician. The Foley mixer records and mixes the sound effects. The editor puts it all together; assembling the video, audio and graphics for the show into a finished product.

V. Quality Control Procedures

The production and staff carefully edits everything that was shot and taped to deliver quality films and television shows to their viewers. Also, a single film does not mean a single take of shots and one tape, to ensure quality films to be shown to the public by the network several takes of a single event or play is taken as long as the director of the play deems that the tape taken is not to satisfaction. Several hours were spent by the workers off screen to add effects, backgrounds, scenes, and music background to a single tape before showing to the public.

VI. Instrumentation and Process Control

VII. Waste Generation, Control and Management
All generated hazardous wastes such as tapes, used engine oils, busted fluorescent lamp (BFL), empty paint cans, contaminated rags and others are treated, recycled and appropriately disposed of with the DENR’s accredited 3rd party 19 hazardous waste treatment groups.
GMA has a Discharge Permit from the Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) to operate its Sewage Treatment Facility (STP) in the GMA Network Centre. Fuel consumed by the generator sets as well as their emissions are monitored by the DENR annually.

VIII. Roles or Jobs of a Chemical Engineer
Water Distilling Manager
Each building has its own water distilling station for their employees. Chemical Engineers may be employed to install the facility as well as to troubleshoot it in some instances.
Sewage Treatment Facilitator
Since the company is operating a sewage treatment facility, it needs chemical engineers to oversee the process.

IX. Observations and Recommendations
We have seen how multiple cameras were manipulated to make a small room seem to appear bigger on a television. Also, what was only shown to us was how the programs were made and how the set was prepared prior to the shows they are offering to the public. We were expecting to see or to gain knowledge how or where the roles of a chemical engineer will be seen on the company.


Date of Visit: January 10, 2017

I. Introduction
To be the leading provider of total customer solutions in the energy sector and its derivative businesses.
We will achieve our vision by:
• Being an integral part of our customers’ lives, delivering consistent customer experience through innovative products and services;
• Developing strategic partnerships in pursuit of growth and opportunity;
• Leveraging on our refining assets to achieve competitive advantage;
• Fostering an entrepreneurial culture that encourages teamwork, innovation, and excellence;
• Caring for community and the environment;
• Conducting ourselves with professionalism, integrity, and fairness; and
• Promoting the best interest of all our stakeholders.
The Petron Bataan Refinery (PBR) is the country’s largest integrated crude oil refinery and petrochemicals complex. Inaugurated in 1961 with a capacity of 25,000 barrels per day, it has grown to its current rated capacity of 180,000 barrels-per-day.
Located in the province of Limay, Bataan, PBR processes crude oil into a full range of petroleum products including gasoline, diesel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), jet fuel, kerosene, and industrial fuel oil. PBR also produces petrochemical feedstock benzene, toluene, mixed xylene, and propylene.
PBR is at the heart of Petron’s operations. For over 50 years, the facility has served the country’s demand for quality fuel products, ensuring a reliable and continuous supply to power the nation forward. Run by Filipino refining experts, PBR is a showcase of the world-class technical capability of our countrymen as well as first-rate technology.
Through the years, PBR has achieved several firsts in the industry including the production of revolutionary and environment-friendly fuel products, international certifications (e.g. International Management Systems), and safety milestones among others.
Petron continues to invest in its refinery to better serve the nation. In the past decade, it has employed its refinery to formulate petroleum products that fit the lifestyles of Filipinos. It has also commissioned units that allow the local production of fuels that meet the requirements of the Clean Air Act.
Petron is the only local producer of petrochemical feedstock. Petrochemical production is strategic since it is one of the pillars of an industrialized nation. Petrochemicals are raw materials used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, rope, sacks, plastic parts, home appliance, automotive parts, reusable containers, etc.
II. History
“Through many years of significant socio-economic changes in the Philippines, Petron Corporation has remained a steadfast ally of the Filipino in nation-building. Powering industries, fueling economic growth, uplifting lives—this is the story of Petron.” (Petron, 2011)
A Storied History
“Petron traces its rich heritage to September 7, 1933 when Socony Vacuum Oil Company of New York and the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey merged to form the Standard Vacuum Oil Company or Stanvac. After suspending operations in World War II, Stanvac promptly resumed its operations in 1945.” (Petron, 2011)
“In 1957, Stanvac started constructing a refinery in the province of Limay, Bataan to meet the country’s growing fuel needs. At the time of its inauguration in 1961, it had a refining capacity of 25,000 barrels of crude oil per day.” (Petron, 2011)
“The end of Standard Oil and Socony Vacuum’s partnership in 1962 gave birth to Esso Philippines. In 1973, the Philippine National Oil Company (PNOC) acquired Esso Philippines at the height of the first oil crisis and renamed it Petrophil Corporation.” (Petron, 2011)
“In February 1988, Petrophil was rechristened Petron Corporation. Amid the most difficult and trying times that the country faced, including the Gulf War of 1991, Petron readily worked hand-in-hand with the national government in ensuring an uninterrupted and reliable supply of petroleum products.” (Petron, 2011)
Deregulation and Privatization
“The 1990s saw the full deregulation of the local oil industry. In preparation for this, PNOC partnered with the world’s largest crude oil producer, Saudi Aramco, to give Petron a reliable crude supply and access to state-of-the-art refining and marketing technology.” (Petron, 2011)
“In 1994, PNOC and Saudi Aramco signed a stock purchase agreement that gave Aramco 40% ownership of Petron. In the same year, 20% of PNOC shares were sold in what was dubbed as the “mother of all initial public offerings (IPOs)” in the Philippines.” (Petron, 2011)
The Wave of Change
“Privatization spurred many changes in Petron. At the Petron Bataan Refinery (PBR), refining capacity was expanded from 155,000 to 180,000 barrels per day over five years beginning in 1993.” (Petron, 2011)
“Petron also commissioned several units to produce environment-friendly fuels that go beyond compliance with the Philippine Clean Air Act’s stringent specifications.” (Petron, 2011)
“In 2000, Petron marked its diversification into the petrochemical business by constructing units that allowed the production of raw materials to make everyday products such as car parts, home appliances, food packaging, and plastic containers among others. Later on, in 2010, Petron acquired a polypropylene plant in Mariveles, Bataan to delve even deeper into the petrochemical business.” (Petron, 2011)
“To give motorists a one-stop full service experience, Petron partnered with leading fast food chains and consumer-service companies to make its service stations—particularly its mega stations or Petron Express Centers—a travelers’ oasis.” (Petron, 2011)
“Petron also introduced various automotive fuels that meet the unique requirements of the motoring community, such as Petron XCS, Petron Diesel Max, and Petron Blaze.” (Petron, 2011)
Blazing New Trails
“In 2009, San Miguel Corporation (SMC) started managing Petron. Having been in the beverage, food, and packaging industries for over 120 years, SMC is one of the biggest global conglomerates in the country today. In recent years, it has diversified into heavy industries such as power, mining, toll ways, and airports.” (Petron, 2011)
“Petron embarked on a retail network expansion program. It pioneered the micro-filling or bulilit station. The program opened business opportunities for entrepreneurs and broadened Petron’s already extensive reach, especially in the provinces.” (Petron, 2011)
“Capitalizing on its strength as an oil refiner, Petron formulated revolutionary fuels to meet the daily needs of Filipino motorists such as the improved Petron Blaze 100 (formerly Petron Blaze), which has the highest recorded octane rating in fuels technology history. (Petron, 2011)
“At the end of 2010, Petron was conferred with the Gold Trusted Brand Award in the Petrol Station category by Reader’s Digest for the 11th consecutive time the year after.” (Petron, 2011)
Building for the Future
“In April 2011, Petron Bataan Refinery celebrated its 50th anniversary with the launch of its Expansion Project (RMP 2).” (Petron, 2011)
“RMP-2 is the company’s biggest and most ambitious project to date. Upon its completion, it will increase PBR’s refining capacity and as a result, further enhance the country’s supply security. It will also make Petron the only oil company that could locally-produce fuels that meet global clean air Euro IV standard and ultimately, one of the most modern integrated oil refining and petrochemical complexes in Asia-Pacific region.” (Petron, 2011)
“Nearly eighty years later, Petron remains dedicated and passionate about its vision to be the leading provider of total customer solutions in the energy sector and its derivative businesses.” (Petron, 2011)

III. Products
The products that Petron Bataan Refinery is offering to the public are the following (to which they are sub-classified to their types):
1. Automotive Fuels o PetronBlaze100Euro5
o PetronXtraAdvanceEuro4
o PetronXCSEuro4
o PetronTurboDiesel
o PetronDieselMaxEuro4
o PetronXtendAutogas
2. Automotive Fuels o Petron2TEnviro
o PetronRev-XHD
o PetronSprint4TFullySynthetic
o PetronSprint4TPremiumMulti-grade
o PetronRev-XMulti-grade
o PetronRev-XHauler
o PetronRev-XPremiumMulti-grade
o PetronRev-XFullySynthetic
o PetronMotorOil
o Petron2TPremium
o PetronUltronRallye
o PetronUltronPremiumMulti-grade
o PetronUltronMulti-grade
o PetronSprint4TExtra
o Petron Automotive Gear And Transmission
o Petron Aftermarket Specialties
o Petron Greases
o Petron Special Products
o Petron Ultron Race
o PetronSTM
o Petron2TAutolube
o PetronSprint4TMulti-grade
o Petron2TPowerburn
3. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) o PetronGasul
4. Industrial Petroleum Products o PetronIndustrialLubricants
o PetronMarineLubricants
o PetronGreases
o PetronSpecialProducts
o PetronAsphalt
o PetronFuels
o PetronAviationLubricants
5. Polypropylene o Petrolene1100N
o Petrolene1100M
o PetroleneMSDS
o Petrolene1184JK
o Petrolene1129N
o Petrolene1126N
o Petrolene1104M
o Petrolene1104JK
o Petrolene1102KL
o Petrolene1102K
o Petrolene1102H
o Petrolene1100M

IV. Manufacturing Process
Raw Material/s
• Crude Oil: Organic material from fossil fuel, made naturally from decaying plants and animals, accumulated through millions of years in seabeds or inland
• Other feedstock: Examples are naphtha and gas oil. naphtha is as a feedstock for steam cracking to produce petrochemicals (ethylene, propylene) and the production of aromatic petrochemical products (benzene, toluene, and xylenes). Gas oil is used as a chemical feedstock for steam cracking, although generally less preferred than naphtha and natural gas liquids (NGLs, including liquefied petroleum gases).

Common Process Unit
• Desalter unit washes out salt from the crude oil before it enters the atmospheric distillation unit.
• Atmospheric distillation unit distills crude oil into fractions.
• Vacuum distillation unit further distills residual bottoms after atmospheric distillation.
• Naphtha hydrotreater unit uses hydrogen to desulfurize naphtha from atmospheric distillation. Must hydrotreat the naphtha before sending to a Catalytic Reformer unit.
• Catalytic reformer unit is used to convert the naphtha-boiling range molecules into higher octane reformate (reformer product). The reformate has higher content of aromatics and cyclic hydrocarbons). An important byproduct of a reformer is hydrogen released during the catalyst reaction. The hydrogen is used either in the hydrotreaters or the hydrocracker.
• Distillate hydrotreater unit desulfurizes distillates (such as diesel) after atmospheric distillation.
• Fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) unit upgrades heavier fractions into lighter, more valuable products.
• Hydrocracker unit uses hydrogen to upgrade heavier fractions into lighter, more valuable products.
• Visbreaking unit upgrades heavy residual oils by thermally cracking them into lighter, more valuable reduced viscosity products.
• Merox unit treats LPG, kerosene or jet fuel by oxidizing mercaptans to organic disulfides.
• Coking units (delayed coking, fluid coker, and flexicoker) process very heavy residual oils into gasoline and diesel fuel, leaving petroleum coke as a residual product.
• Alkylation unit produces high-octane component for gasoline blending.
• Dimerization unit converts olefins into higher-octane gasoline blending components. For example, butenes can be dimerized into isooctene which may subsequently be hydrogenated to form isooctane. There are also other uses for dimerization.
• Isomerization unit converts linear molecules to higher-octane branched molecules for blending into gasoline or feed to alkylation units.
• Steam reforming unit produces hydrogen for the hydrotreaters or hydrocracker.
• Liquified gas storage units store propane and similar gaseous fuels at pressure sufficient to maintain them in liquid form. These are usually spherical vessels or bullets (horizontal vessels with rounded ends.
• Storage tanks store crude oil and finished products, usually cylindrical, with some sort of vapor emission control and surrounded by an earthen berm to contain spills.
• Slug catcher used when product (crude oil and gas) that comes from a pipeline with two-phase flow, has to be buffered at the entry of the units.
• Amine gas treater, Claus unit, and tail gas treatment convert hydrogen sulfide from hydrodesulfurization into elemental sulfur.
• Utility units such as cooling towers circulate cooling water, boiler plants generates steam, and instrument air systems include pneumatically operated control valves and an electrical substation.
• Wastewater collection and treating systems consist of API separators, dissolved air flotation (DAF) units and further treatment units such as an activated sludge biotreater to make water suitable for reuse or for disposal.
• Solvent refining units use solvent such as cresol or furfural to remove unwanted, mainly aromatics from lubricating oil stock or diesel stock.
• Solvent dewaxing units remove the heavy waxy constituents petrolatum from vacuum distillation products.

The image above is a schematic flow diagram of a typical oil refinery that depicts the various unit processes and the flow of intermediate product streams that occurs between the inlet crude oil feedstock and the final end products. The diagram depicts only one of the literally hundreds of different oil refinery configurations. The diagram also does not include any of the usual refinery facilities providing utilities such as steam, cooling water, and electric power as well as storage tanks for crude oil feedstock and for intermediate products and end products.

V. Quality Control Procedures
Quality Control is divided into four areas namely quality control in production, in storage, in shipping, and in distribution.
a. Quality Control during Production
• Strength of Monitoring System: LIMS, APC, Pi System, EPR QM, etc
• Normal Operation: Interactive cooperation between related department (Chemical Estimation Test Support)
• Abnormal Condition: Analysis Support, Equipment Calibration
b. Quality Control during Storage
• Day Tank Operation: Product Transfer after Specs confirmation
• Introduction of Off-site Automation System
• Storage Tank Full Specs Test
c. Quality Control during Shipping
• Multi-step Test: Off-specs Check, Quality Assurance thru Sampling
• Reinforcement of Ship Internal Inspection – prevention of quality degradation thru Oil Blending
• SMS Service for off-specs products
d. Quality Control during Distribution
• Brand Identity Embodiment
• Customer-oriented Quality Management Support
Governmental Quality Standards

VI. Instrumentation and Process Control
• Temperature indicators
“The measurement of temperature is a vital part of instrumentation in petrochemical industries. Platinum Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD’s) are often used for their excellent temperature response. Thermocouples are used in locations that need a more durable sensor. Thermocouples come in many types.” (World Heritage Encyclopedia, 2017)
• Pressure measurement
“A pressure to current converter (P/I converter) in petrochemical industries is used to measure the pressure developed by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), crude oil, petrol, and various other petroleum byproducts. In the P/I converter, the indicated pressure can be a digital or an analog form. The main advantage is that it can be directly shown on the control panel in the control room. This is true for temperature measurement also.” (World Heritage Encyclopedia, 2017)

• Flow meters
“Because refined oil is volatile, it is important to know the quantity of oil being transported at numerous points along the pipeline. This requirement also holds for natural gas. Flowmeters are generally of vortex, positive displacement (PD), differential pressure, Coriolis, and ultrasonic varieties.” (World Heritage Encyclopedia, 2017)
• Level sensors
“Petroleum and natural gas industries need very accurate level measurement. Besides traditional technologies like differential pressure level meters, radar, magnetostrictive, and magnetic float are also used extensively.” (World Heritage Encyclopedia, 2017)
“One of the problems with a significant number of technologies is that they are installed through a nozzle and are exposed to products. This can create several problems, especially when retrofitting new equipment to vessels that have already been stress relieved, as it may not be possible to fit the instrument at the location required. Also, as the measuring element is exposed to the contents within the vessel, it may either attack or coat the instrument causing it to fail in service. One of the most reliable methods for measuring level is using a Nuclear gauge, as it is installed outside the vessel and doesn’t normally require a nozzle for bulk level measurement. The measuring element is installed outside the process and can be maintained in normal operation without taking a shutdown. Shutdown is only required for an accurate calibration.” (World Heritage Encyclopedia, 2017)
• Analysis instruments
“Industrial chromatographs are generally used in olefin processing in the petrochemical industry. Continuous gas analyzers are also widely used.” (World Heritage Encyclopedia, 2017)

VII. Waste Generation, Control and Management
“The primary hazardous wastes associated with petroleum refining can be classified into three main categories: process wastes; equipment cleaning wastes; and wastewater treatment wastes.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
a. Process Wastes
“Refining operations generate a series of wastes from each step in the refining process. Desalting operations generate both water and sludges contaminated with petroleum, while distillation and refinement operations generate wastewater, spent catalysts (which often contain heavy-metal constituents), spent caustics, and spent desiccant clays.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“A series of minimization techniques have been identified for petroleum refining process wastes. In general, the techniques revolve around the following approaches:” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
? “Maximize the use of process materials such as catalysts or desiccant clays by following proper storage and use procedures.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
? “Ensure that all reaction processes are being run under optimal conditions (pressure, temperature, and mixing ratios).” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
? “Select catalysts and associated materials based on their tendency to minimize the generation waste.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
? “Use cooling water for multiple cycles.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
? “Locate specific sources of wastewater contamination and segregate them.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)

b. Equipment Cleaning Wastes
“Equipment cleaning wastes are generated from cleaning such items as heat exchangers, storage tanks, and tank trucks. The waste from cleaning the heat exchangers is classified as K050 waste and waste from cleaning leaded gasoline storage tanks is classified as K052 waste (leaded tank bottoms). All other waste from cleaning petroleum storage equipment is potentially TC-hazardous waste due to the presence of benzene (D018).” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“Equipment cleaning wastes may be minimized by a series of techniques. For storage tank or other” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“Equipment cleaning wastes, some of the available waste minimization techniques are as follows.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“Filter the fuel going into the tanks (or other storage equipment) with reusable filters to avoid sludge buildup.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“Install floating tank covers and add secondary seals in the tanks to minimize water or solid entrainment.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“Install cathodic protectors in tanks, and/or use corrosion resistant materials to line the tanks.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“Use a filter press to recover petroleum from the cleaning sludge.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“Allow oil to separate from tank water draws before treating the water.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“For heat exchanger bundle cleaning wastes, some available waste minimization techniques are as follows.”
“Decrease the film (surface) temperature and increase the cooling liquid turbulence (velocity) to reduce cleaning frequency.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“Reduce deposit precursors (calcium or magnesium salts) in fluids to help prevent scale buildup and corrosion.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“Add water softeners to cooling water.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“Add corrosion inhibitors to cooling water.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“Use air coolers/electric heaters as alternatives to heat exchangers.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“Use smooth heat exchanger tube surfaces (e.g., teflon) to minimize the sites available for scale formation and to reduce the cleaning frequency.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“Use ozone destruction of microorganisms in cooling water rather than biocides.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
c. Wastewater Treatment Wastes
“Wastewater treatment at petroleum refineries generally involves API separators and other equipment such as dissolved air floatation units, oil slop tanks, vacuum filters, biological treatment systems, and stormwater settling basins. Distribution facilities may utilize some or all of these treatment techniques, although usually on a much smaller scale than most refineries. The following discussion will focus on petroleum refineries.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“In most refineries, all wastewater is treated in a centralized system. Wastewater is collected from all processes and first treated by an API separator. The purpose of the API separator is to perform the initial separation of solids from liquids and oil from water. Solids that settle in the API separator are K051 wastes (API separator sludge). The sludge is removed from the API separators, the water is passed on to further treatment, and the oil is recycled.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“In some refineries, the next treatment step for wastewater is “dissolved air floatation” or DAF, which removes additional oil and solids. The water is fed into a tank where air bubbles are formed, bringing solids and oil particles to the surface where they are skimmed off. Oil skimmed off the top is recycled and the remaining waste is classified as K048 waste (dissolved air floatation float).” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“The water effluent from these processes may be subject to further primary treatment, then to secondary treatment (biological treatment), and finally discharged to surface waters under a Clean Water Act (NPDES) permit, discharged to a sewer system, recycled, or impounded in a lagoon. Any sludges arising from primary treatment other than API separation or DAF is listed as F037.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“The oil that has been recovered from the API or DAF treatment must go through further treatment in “slop oil tanks”, where it is again separated into oil, water, and emulsion. The oil is returned for reprocessing and the wastewater is recycled back to the API separator. The emulsion is classified as a K049 waste (slop oil emulsion solids).” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
“Wastewater treatment wastes may be minimized by all of the following approaches.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
• “Use better operating procedures to minimize the amount of wastewater requiring treatment. For example, segregate aqueous and oily wastes where possible;” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
• “Use only the amount of water required in refinery processes; insure that process system components are well serviced to avoid leakage and contamination of non-process waters; etc.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
• “Retrofit API separators with coalescing plates (i.e., baffles) to increase separation efficiency or treatment volume.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
• “Use pressurized air technology to increase API recovery efficiency.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
• “Use alternative cleaning technologies where possible, especially DAF technology, which is more expensive but ten times more efficient than an API separator.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
• “Use proper flocculants in API or other separation operations to increase the separation efficiency and reduce the amount of waste that is carried downstream.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
• “Use a filter press to recover oil from wastewater sludges.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)
• “For facilities with cokers, use wastewater sludges to produce coke.” (Pollution Prevention, 1991)

VIII. Roles or Jobs of a Chemical Engineer
A chemical engineer plays different roles in an oil and gas industry. I’m penning down this with what i have seen in my company, Reliance Industries Ltd.
Roles played by chemical engineers in an oil and gas complex.
1. Panel Operator : The panel operator controls the plant operation through the DCS panel.
2. Field In charge: The FIC issues permits to work in the plant like cold work permit,hotwork permit,etc.
3. Shift In charge: The SIC oversees all the activities going on in the plant in his shift. His approval is required for light hot permit jobs in the plant.
4. Shift Field Engineer: In huge plants, the plant is divided into different areas and each given to an SFE. The SFE issues permits of his area and also takes rounds of his area to find any abnormalities.
Day Superintendent: Chemical Engineers in operations get General shift 5 days a week working role from this position. The DS takes responsibility of jobs going on in the plant during day. His approval is required for Heavy hot jobs.
5. Production Manager: He is accountable for the daily production of the plant.
6. Plant Head/Manager: He’s the owner of the plant and is accountable to anything and everything in the plant.
7. Site Shift Manager: The SSM collects data of whatever happening in all the plants of the complex in a shift. He communicates important messages to all plants and coordinates all the plants Incase of emergencies.
8. Operations Chief: He’s accountable for the daily production of the complex.
9. Central Technical Services: They prepare plant reports, analyse trips, do troubleshooting, suggest changes,etc. The roles vary from Manager, Senior Manager, General Manager and Senior General Manager.
10. CTS chief: He heads the CTS of a complex.
11. Planning and budgeting: This wing coordinates the plans of production of each plants for a daily and monthly basis. They also take care of the feed availability, customers for the products and so on.
12. Energy Team: This team tracks the energy requirement for the complex and closely monitors it on a daily/ monthly basis.
13. Site president: He’s the owner of the complex.

IX. Observations and Recommendations
The tourguide given can’t be heard from the back of the bus since we only had a bus tour around their production line for safety purposes. But on the contrary, the speaker who introduced everything about PBR explained profoundly what we need to know about the company.
The PBR employs a fractional distillation in acquiring their products. Light products being the first to be acquired and heavy naphtha to be the last.

Date of Visit: January 10, 2017

I. Introduction
To provide top quality and affordable ceramic products to all its customers; produce ready made and customized items as per client’s requests.
To be the top ceramic manufacturing company in the Philippines that provides world class products globally and help in promoting Philippine made products in the ceramic industry.
II. History
Evergreen Ceramic Arts founded since 1981 and has been leading in the ceramic industry in the Philippines. The company is known for its quality and unique designs both in the local and international market. Evergreen Ceramic Arts not only provides ready made in demand ceramic items but also specializes in bulk custom made orders worldwide.
III. Products
Ceramics, figurines and other home decorations.
IV. Manufacturing Process
Figure E.1 Process diagram for ceramic making.
• Raw Material Procurement
To begin the process, raw materials are transported and stored at the manufacturing facility. The raw materials used in the manufacture of ceramics range from relatively impure clay materials mined from natural deposits to ultrahigh purity powders prepared by chemical synthesis. Naturally occurring raw materials used to manufacture ceramics include silica, sand, quartz, flint, silicates, and aluminosilicates (e. g., clays and feldspar).
• Beneficiation
The next step in the process is beneficiation. Although chemically synthesized ceramic powders also require some beneficiation, the focus of this discussion is on the processes for beneficiating naturally occurring raw materials. The basic beneficiation processes include comminution, purification, sizing, classification, calcining, liquid dispersion, and granulation. Naturally occurring raw materials often undergo some beneficiation at the mining site or at an intermediate processing facility prior to being transported to the ceramic manufacturing facility.
Comminution entails reducing the particle size of the raw material by crushing, grinding, and milling or fine grinding. The purpose of comminution is to liberate impurities, break up aggregates, modify particle morphology and size distribution, facilitate mixing and forming, and produce a more reactive material for firing. Primary crushing generally reduces material up to 0.3 meter (m) (1 foot ft) in diameter down to 1 centimeter (cm) (0.40 inch in.) in diameter.
Secondary crushing reducesparticle size down to approximately 1 millimeter (mm) (0.04 in.) in diameter. Fine grinding or milling reduces the particle size down to as low as 1.0 micrometer (?m) (4 x 10-5 in.) in diameter. Ball mills are the most commonly used piece of equipment for milling. However, vibratory mills, attrition mills, and fluid energy mills also are used. Crushing and grinding typically are dry processes; milling may be a wet or dry process. In wet milling, water or alcohol commonly is used as the milling liquid. Several procedures are used to purify the ceramic material. Water soluble impurities can be removed by washing with deionized or distilled water and filtering, and organic solvents may be used for removing water-insoluble impurities. Acid leaching sometimes is employed to remove metal contaminants. Magnetic separation is used to extract magnetic impurities from either dry powders or wet slurries. Froth flotation also is used to separate undesirable materials.
Sizing and classification separate the material into size ranges. Sizing is most often accomplished using fixed or vibrating screens. Dry screening can be used to sizes down to 44 ?m (0.0017 in., 325 mesh). Dry forced-air sieving and sonic sizing can be used to size dry powders down to 37 ?m (0.0015 in., 400 mesh), and wet sieving can be used for particles down to 25 ?m (0.00098 in., 500 mesh). Air classifiers generally are effective in the range of 420 ?m to 37 ?m (0.017 to 0.0015 in., 40 to 400 mesh). However, special air classifiers are available for isolating particles down to 10 ?m (0.00039 in.).
Calcining consists of heating a ceramic material to a temperature well below its melting point to liberate undesirable gases or other material and to bring about structural transformation to produce the desired composition and phase product. Calcining typically is carried out in rotary calciners, heated fluidized beds, or by heating a static bed of ceramic powder in a refractory crucible.
Liquid dispersion of ceramic powders sometimes is used to make slurries. Slurry processing facilitates mixing and minimizes particle agglomeration. The primary disadvantage of slurry processing is that the liquid must be removed prior to firing the ceramic. Dry powders often are granulated to improve flow, handling, packing, and compaction.
Granulation is accomplished by direct mixing, which consists of introducing a binder solution during powder mixing, or by spray drying. Spray dryers generally are gas-fired and operate at temperatures of 110° to 130°C (230° to 270°F).
• Mixing
The purpose of mixing or blunging is to combine the constituents of a ceramic powder to produce a more chemically and physically homogenous material for forming. Pug mills often are used for mixing ceramic materials. Several processing aids may be added to the ceramic mix during the mixing stage. Binders and plasticizers are used in dry powder and plastic forming; in slurry processing, deflocculants, surfactants, and antifoaming agents are added to improve processing. Liquids also are added in plastic and slurry processing. Binders are polymers or colloids that are used to impart strength to green or unfired ceramic bodies. For dry forming and extrusion, binders amount to 3 percent by weight of the ceramic mixture.
Plasticizers and lubricants are used with some types of binders. Plasticizers increase the flexibility of the ceramic mix. Lubricants lower frictional forces between particles and reduce wear on equipment.
Water is the most commonly used liquid in plastic and slurry processing. Organic liquids such as alcohols may also be used in some cases. Deflocculants also are used in slurry processing to improve dispersion and dispersion stability. Surfactants are used in slurry processing to aid dispersion, and antifoams are used to remove trapped gas bubbles from the slurry.
• Forming
In the forming step, dry powders, plastic bodies, pastes, or slurries are consolidated and molded to produce a cohesive body of the desired shape and size. Dry forming consists of the simultaneous compacting and shaping of dry ceramic powders in a rigid die or flexible mold.
Dryforming can be accomplished by dry pressing, isostatic compaction, and vibratory compaction. Plastic molding is accomplished by extrusion, jiggering, or powder injection molding.
Extrusion is used in manufacturing structural clay products and some refractory products. Jiggering is widely used in the manufacture of small, simple, axially symmetrical whiteware ceramic such as cookware, fine china, and electrical porcelain. Powder injection molding is used for making small complex shapes.
Paste forming consists of applying a thick film of ceramic paste on a substrate. Ceramic pastes are used for decorating ceramic tableware, and forming capacitors and dielectric layers on rigid substrates for microelectronics.
Slurry forming of ceramics generally is accomplished using slip casting, gelcasting, or tape casting. In slip casting, a ceramic slurry, which has a moisture content of 20 to 35 percent, is poured into a porous mold. Capillary suction of the mold draws the liquid from the mold, thereby consolidating the cast ceramic material. After a fixed time the excess slurry is drained, and the cast is dried. Slip casting is widely used in the manufacture of sinks and other sanitaryware, figurines, porous thermal insulation, fine china, and structural ceramics with complex shapes. Gelcasting uses in situ polymerization of organic monomers to produce a gel that binds ceramic particles together into complex shapes such as turbine rotors. Tape casting consists of forming a thin film of ceramic slurry of controlled thickness onto a support surface using a knife edge. Tape casting is used to produce thin ceramic sheets or tape, which can be cut and stacked to form multilayer ceramics for capacitors and dielectric insulator substrates.
• Green Machining
After forming, the ceramic shape often is machined to eliminate rough surfaces and seams or to modify the shape. The methods used to machine green ceramics include surface grinding to smooth surfaces, blanking and punching to cut the shape and create holes or cavities, and laminating for multilayer ceramics.
• Drying
After forming, ceramics must be dried. Drying must be carefully controlled to strike a balance between minimizing drying time and avoiding differential shrinkage, warping, and distortion. Themost commonly used method of drying ceramics is by convection, in which heated air is circulated around the ceramics. Air drying often is performed in tunnel kilns, which typically use heat recovered from the cooling zone of the kiln. Periodic kilns or dryers operating in batch mode also are used.
Convection drying also is carried out in divided tunnel dryers, which include separate sections with independent temperature and humidity controls. An alternative to air drying is radiation drying in which microwave or infrared radiation is used to enhance drying.
• Presinter Thermal Processing
Prior to firing, ceramics often are heat-treated at temperatures well below firing temperatures. The purpose of this thermal processing is to provide additional drying, to vaporize or decompose organic additives and other impurities, and to remove residual, crystalline, and chemically bound water. Presinter thermal processing can be applied as a separate step, which is referred to as bisque firing, or by gradually raising and holding the temperature in several stages.
• Glazing
For traditional ceramics, glaze coatings often are applied to dried or bisque-fired ceramic ware prior to sintering. Glazes consist primarily of oxides and can be classified as raw glazes or frit glazes. In raw glazes, the oxides are in the form of minerals or compounds that melt readily and act as solvents for the other ingredients. Some of the more commonly used raw materials for glazes are quartz, feldspars, carbonates, borates, and zircon. A frit is a prereacted glass.
To prepare glazes, the raw materials are ground in a ball mill or attrition mill. Glazes generally are applied by spraying or dipping. Depending on their constituents, glazes mature at temperatures of 600° to 1500°C (1110° to 2730°F).
• Firing
Firing is the process by which ceramics are thermally consolidated into a dense, cohesive body comprised of fine, uniform grains. This process also is referred to as sintering or densification. In general: (1) ceramics with fine particle size fire quickly and require lower firing temperatures; (2) dense unfired ceramics fire quickly and remain dense after firing with lower shrinkage; and (3) irregular shaped ceramics fire quickly. Other material properties that affect firing include material surface energy, diffusion coefficients, fluid viscosity, and bond strength.
Parameters that affect firing include firing temperature, time, pressure, and atmosphere. A short firing time results in a product that is porous and has a low density; a short to intermediate firing time results in fine-grained (i. e., having particles not larger than 0.2 millimeters), high-strength products; and long firing times result in a coarse-grained products that are more creep resistant.
Applying pressure decreases firing time and makes it possible to fire materials that are difficult to fire using conventional methods. Oxidizing or inert atmospheres are used to fire oxide ceramics to avoid reducing transition metals and degrading the finish of the product.
In addition to conventional firing, other methods used include pressure firing, hot forging, plasma firing, microwave firing, and infrared firing. The following paragraphs describe conventional and pressure firing, which are the methods used often.
Conventional firing is accomplished by heating the green ceramic to approximately two-thirds of the melting point of the material at ambient pressure and holding it for a specified time in a periodic or tunnel kiln. Periodic kilns are heated and cooled according to prescribed schedules. The heat for periodic kilns generally is provided by electrical element or by firing with gas or oil.
Tunnel kilns generally have separate zones for cooling, firing, and preheating or drying. The kilns may be designed so that (1) the air heated in the cooling zone moves into the firing zone and the combustion gases in the firing zone are conveyed to the preheat/drying zone then exhausted, or (2) the air heated in the cooling zone is conveyed to the preheat/drying zone and the firing zone gases are exhausted separately. The most commonly used tunnel kiln design is the roller hearth (roller) kiln. In conventional firing, tunnel kilns generally are fired with gas, oil, coal, or wood. Following firing and cooling, ceramics are sometimes refired after the application of decals, paint, or ink.
Advanced ceramics often are fired in electric resistance-heated furnaces with controlled atmospheres. For some products, separate furnaces may be needed to eliminate organic lubricants and binders prior to firing.
Ceramic products also are manufactured by pressure firing, which is similar to the forming process of dry pressing except that the pressing is conducted at the firing temperature. Because of its higher costs, pressure firing is usually reserved for manufacturing ceramics that are difficult to fire to high density by conventional firing.
• Final Processing
Following firing, some ceramic products are processed further to enhance their characteristics or to meet dimensional tolerances. Ceramics can be machined by abrasive grinding, chemical polishing, electrical discharge machining, or laser machining. Annealing at high temperature, followed by gradual cooling can relieve internal stresses within the ceramic and surface stresses due to machining. In addition, surface coatings are applied to many fired ceramics. Surface coatings are applied to traditional clay ceramics to create a stronger, impermeable surface and for decoration.
Coatings also may be applied to improve strength, and resistance to abrasion and corrosion. Coatings can be applied dry, as slurries, by spraying, or by vapor deposition.
V. Quality Control Procedures
In process testing
Finished Product – Parameters and Procedures
Evergreen makes do with visual inspection as a procedure for quality assurance. Porcelains intended for use like mugs, plates, bowls, and other kitchen utensils are inspected for cracks. In the case of utensils with visible cracks, they are deemed as rejected products and not dispensed for sale. Figurines or home decorations with minimal cracks are sold at a lower price compared to the full value had the item been flawless. (Evergreen Ceramic Arts, 2012)
VI. Instrumentation and Process Control
The whole process from start to finish is done by hand. There are no automations in the company. The operation of the clay mixer and the furnace for heating was not discussed during the tour and no other information about the company is found by research.

VII. Waste Generation, Control and Management
ECA’s products are clay materials which have proven to be non-biodegradable and non-recyclable. Ceramic products can emit a number of toxic substances from glazes used, causes leaching of potentially toxic substances into soils in groundwater when disposed to landfills, and increase mobility and accumulation of potentially toxic elements throughout the food chain.

VIII. Roles or Jobs of a Chemical Engineer
There was no chemical engineer that was hired at the company at the moment.
IX. Observations and Recommendations
That ceramic handling isn’t as easy as it seems. It needs extra precautions on handling such; the students were also given the chance to try to do what the employees are doing prior to finish a ceramic product. The tour guide was accommodating that every question that was raised by the students were answered.
Accuracy and precision are the things to be considered in this type of industry. Accuracy in the sense that the employees must be able to produce almost identical to each of the type of product they are in. Precision in a sense, that the designs and parameters are to be controlled to avoid product damage.?

Cabuyao, Laguna
Date of Visit: January 11, 2017

I. Introduction
To provide the consumers with quality products that will satisfy their taste at the best possible value.
To produce liquor products perfected and nurtured through ingenuity and craftsmanship and elevate the Filipino stature in the global standard.
To be the best in the liquor industry in the Philippines and ultimately in the global market with a vision of One World, One Spirit.
II. History
“Tanduay has over hundred years of history. (TDI) It all begun in 1854 when Don Joaquin Elizalde, together with his Uncle Juan Bautista Yrissary, and the Manila-based Spanish businessman and financier Ynchausti established a trading partnership, which acquired the Manila Steamship Company. (TDI) This alliance was named the Ynchausti Y Cia. Their main line of business was ship chandlery and later ventured into Abaca making. (TDI) The steamships they owned plied the Laguna Lake to Manila route. Later, Valentin Teus, a cousin of the Elizaldes, joined the partnership. (TDI) Teus acquired distillery in Hagonoy, Bulacan from Elias Menchatorre and merged it with Ynachausti Y Cia. (TDI) Six years later, a rectifying plant of this distillery was constructed in San Miguel District, Manila. (TDI) This small distillery was transformed by four successive generations of the Elizaldes into the modern Tanduay Distillery, considered one of the largest in the Philippines.” (TDI) In 1893, Don Joaquin Elizalde became the majority stockholder in Ynchausti Y Cia, and the company was renamed Elizalde ; Co, Inc. (Hlousek) In May 10, 1988, Twin Ace Holding Corporation owned and managed by Lucio Tan Group of Companies (L.T.G.C.) acquired Tanduay Distillery from the Elizalde family. (Hlousek)
Asian Alcohol Corporation (AAC)
“In August 2005, Tanduay distillers Inc. acquired controlling stake in liquor firms Asian Alcohol corp. and Absolut chemicals Inc. for P1.7 Billion. (ADI) Tanduay used existing credit lines with localbanks totaling P3.0 billion to finance the deals. (ADI) Tanduay paid P1.153 billion for the stake in Asian Alcohol and P567 million for Absolut Chemicals. (ADI) Under the deal, Tanduay will have 90% equity in the two companies. (ADI)” (TDI, 2010)
“In 2007, TDI subscribed to the increase in the authorized capital of AAC and ACI thereby increasing its equity in the two companies to 93% and 96% respectively. (ADI) Asian Alcohol Corp. Is the second biggest distillery in the Philippines located in Negros Occidental. (ADI) Asian Alcohol has distillation process that uses molasses, yeast, water and other ingredients. (Olchondra) It has a 10 hectare plant in Negros, which is the center of the country’s sugar industry. (ADI) Plant facilities include aging facilities and a modern wastewater treatment plant which converts distillery waste into biogas energy for its power requirements. (TDI) It has a daily rated capacity of 210, 000 liters of quality ethyl alcohol. It sells 100% of its output to Tanduay Distillers. (Olchondra) This output comprises 70% of Tanduay Distillers ethyl alcohol requirements. (ADI)” (TDIS, 2014)
“AAC has a methane gas capture system that enables it to use the methane generated fromdistillation as power to fire up the boilers. (ADI) It is currently embarking on an expansion program that modernizes and increases its distilling capacity by 100%. (ADI)” (TDIS, 2014)
“Absolut Chemicals is medium-sized distillery in Batangas. (ADI) It has a nine-hectare plant in Lian, Batangas wherein 60% of the plant site is allotted to its water treatment facility, which converts distillery wastes into environment-friendly form. (ADI) Absolut Chemicals has a daily rated capacity of 75,000 liters of fine ethyl alcohol. (ADI) It sells 100% of its output to Tanduay Distillers. (ADI) This output comprises 30% of Tanduay Distillery’s ethyl alcohol requirements ACI is upgrading its distillation plant to enable it increase its production of extra neutral alcohol. (ADI)” (TDIS, 2014)
Absolut Distillers, Inc. (ADI)
“Absolut Distillers, Inc. (A.D.I.) is a duly organized and multi-awarded corporation existing under Philippine Laws, with principal address at Brgy. Malaruhatan, Lian, Batangas and an office at 7th Flr. Allied Bank Center, Ayala Avenue., Makati City. (TDI, 2012) The Company has undergone a change of name from Century Distillery Corporation to Absolut Chemicals Incorporated during its inception in 1990, and on that same year, became part of the Lucio Tan Group of Companies. (ADI)” (TDIS, 2014)
“In 2005, it was officially recognized as a subsidiary of Tanduay Distillers Incorporated. To be aligned in LTGC’s aspirations of reaching the demands of a growing market here and abroad, change for the company is inevitable and so on 2010, Absolut Chemicals Incorporated was renamed Absolut Distillers Incorporated. (ADI)” (TDIS, 2014)
“It operates an alcohol distillery plant established in October 10, 1990 and is located amidst vast sugarcane fields at Brgy. Malaruhatan, Lian Batangas, a 2-1/2 hour drive from Manila. It manufactures Ethyl Alcohol as its major product and liquefied Carbon Dioxide as fermentation by- product, which is used in the production of carbonated beverages such as soft drinks, and other industrial applications. Its distillery plant complex has a total land area of around 16.7 hectares. The production facility occupies around 28% of the plant premises only while more than 60% is allotted to the company’s dedicated waste treatment facilities. Due to the company’s strong and relentless efforts and dedication in protecting Mother Earth, it garnered numerous awards and recognitions from the national government and from different organizations here and across international waters.”

III. Products
The “Company has brands in all major liquor categories – rum, gin, brandy, vodka, whiskey and wine. The Company’s primary products consist of the following” (TDI):
A. Tanduay Five Years Fine Dark Rhum – “80 proof is available in 250ml, 375ml, 750ml, and 1 liter. This rhum reflects the hallmark of Tanduay’s rich and lively heritage. (Hoffman) The ageing process of this extra special blend is extended for five long years. (TDI) As a result, the aged rum reveals a lush shade of mahogany and a lasting aroma of sweet nutty smoked flavor. (Liqour) The brand accounts for 74% of TDI’s total sales by volume and 76% by revenues. (TDI)” (TDIS, 2014)
B. Tanduay Rhum 65 Fine Dark Rhum- “65 proof is available in 375 ml and 750ml exuding a well-rounded character with a smooth mellow finish, this exciting dark rum exhibits a grand array of flavors that is full-bodied yet with an edge of sweetness on the tail. (TDI)” (TDIS, 2014)
C. Tanduay E.S.Q. Fine Dark Rhum – “65 proof is available in 375ml and 750ml. This extra smooth rum is expertly blended to obtain a more robust, pronounced flavor, with just the right amount of sweetness and aroma. (PDS)” (TDIS, 2014)
D. Tanduay White Premium Rhum – “72 proof is available in 375ml and 750ml which is exquisitely blended and flawlessly light, this special rum is meticulously filtered resulting in a sparkling clear spirit with a subtle sweet and spicy tang, enhancing any drink it is mixed with. (TDI)” (TDIS, 2014)
E. Tanduay Superior Dark Rhum – “80 proof is available in 700ml.This is considered the Cognac of rum. (Hoffman) Aged in oak wood barrels for twelve years, this superb rum boasts of a compelling flavor with a hint of smokiness and a long well rounded finish. (Liqour)” (TDIS, 2014)
F. Tanduay Rum 1854 – “80 proof is available in 700ml. Tanduay’s rich 150 year history in distilling and blending fine rums is captured in Tanduay Rum 1854, specially prepared in celebration of Tanduay’s 150th year anniversary. (Liqour) It comes from Tanduay’s collection of reserved aged rum, masterfully blended to acquire an aura of festivity and flavor. (PDS)” (TDIS, 2014)
G. Tanduay Centennial Dark Rhum – “80 proof is available in 1 liter. Exclusive to the Philippine Centennial celebration, this distinctive rum was produced from 100 carefully selected barrels aged to perfect the bouquet and aroma of a 20-year-old rum. (PDS)” (TDIS, 2014)
H. T5 Light – “60 proof is available in 700ml and is the World’s first Light Rum. (TDI) It is blended to a smooth, suave 60 proof and as it is destined to be the rum of choice, the newest go to of the young active set. (TDI) Created to be enjoyed straight, ?on the rocks? or with a mixer. (PDS) It promises a vibrant yet light, easy-to-enjoy drinking experience. (TDI)” (TDIS, 2014)
I. Tanduay Extra Strong Rhum – “100 proof is available in 700ml. This unique rum is specially blended to be strong, and yet smooth and easy to drink, robust without being intimidating, and vibrant without being aggressive. (PDS) Its 50% alcohol content and rich character are derived from choice sugarcane and Tanduay’s traditional techniques of ageing and blending. (Hoffman)” (TDIS, 2014)
J. Tanduay Five Years Light – “55 proof is available in 375ml, 750ml, and 1 liter. Tanduay’s Master Blender developed this rich blend aged rum with just the right sweetness and aroma. (TDI) This 55 proof special blend boasts of a compelling smooth flavour without much woody notes, full-bodied yet with an edge of sweetness on the tail. (PDS)” (TDIS, 2014)
K. Boracay Rum- “50 proof is available in 700ml. It is smooth, white rum gets some attitude with the tropical sweetness of coconut, fruity taste of melon and the unique kick of cappuccino. (PDS) It suits the flavor to your mood whether you take it straight, on the rocks or mixed. (Rum)” (TDIS, 2014)
L. Tanduay Asian Rum Gold – “80 proof is available in 750ml. Silky smooth Gold Rum from heritage Asian sugarcane that revealed how Tanduay became the global leader in dark rum. (Hoffman)” (TDIS, 2014)
M. Tanduay Asian Rum Silver – “80 proof is available in 750ml. Silky smooth Silver Rum from heritage Asian sugarcane is only moderately filtered for flavor, giving it a light straw appearance. (PDS) It is perfect for sipping straight yet well balanced for mixing. (TDI)” (TDIS, 2014)
N. London Gin – “80 proof is available in 375 and 700ml. Great taste and sparklingly pure, this gin is expertly distilled and packaged with the most modern methods to suit discriminating tastes worldwide. (TDI) This is bottled under license from London Birmingham Distillers, Ltd., London, England. (PDS)” (TDIS, 2014)
O. Gin Kapitan – “80 proof is available in 350ml. Gin Kapitan was produced to address the preferences of local drinkers for strong alcoholic drinks, particularly in Northern Philippines. (TDI)” (TDIS, 2014)
P. Gin Kapitan Light – “50 proof is available in 350ml. Gin Kapitan Light was produced to satisfy the growing preference for low-strength spirits. (TDI) It has the same quality ingredients as Gin Kapitan, only at 50 proof and made smoother and lighter for longer bnding sessions. (PDS)” (TDIS, 2014)
Q. Barcelona Brandy – “65 proof is available in 350ml and 700 ml. In 2001, Tanduay entered the fast growing local brandy market by introducing its first brandy product, Barcelona. (TDI) It is made from the finest ingredients and blended to perfection. (TDI)” (TDIS, 2014)
R. Compañero Light Brandy – “55 proof is available in 700ml. A blended smooth spirit with a deep golden color, characterized by a rich bold aroma, and an extra smooth, sweet flavor with the taste of real Spanish Brandy. (TDI)” (TDIS, 2014)
S. Cossack Vodka Red – “80 proof is available in 250ml ,350ml, and 700 ml The Pure Spirit. This vodka is treated through carbon and force-filtered in the true Russian tradition to produce a premium, high quality vodka that captures the spirit of Russian brands. (PDS)” (TDIS, 2014)
T. Cossack Vodka Blue – “65 proof is available in 375ml and 700ml. In 2009, this 65 proof vodka was introduced to address the growing preference by young drinkers for smooth and easy to drink liquor. (TDI)” (TDIS, 2014)
U. Embassy Whiskey – “72 proof is available in 700ml. A smooth, mellow mix of imported malt whiskey and fine spirits that has been skillfully and meticulously blended together to achieve the character and rich depth of flavour associated with whiskies aged in oak barrels. (TDI)” (TDIS, 2014)
V. Mardi Gras vodka schnapps – “40 proof is available in 700ml. With its sweet and mild 20% alcohol content, Tanduay launches the first, double-flavor Vodka Schnapps. It delights the senses with the tempting combo of chocolate and a hint of fresh mint or feast with the refreshing fusion of mango and tangy orange. (TDI)” (TDIS, 2014)
W. Tanduay Cocktails – “30 proof- is available in 700ml. Ready to serve premixed cocktails, with 15% alcohol per volume, available in four variants: (TDI) Mojito, Margarita, Strawberry Daiquiri and Blue Maitai. (TDI)”

IV. Manufacturing Process
• Fermentation:
Molasses is diluted with water to reduce the sugar content and the pure yeast culture is added to the mixture. The fermentation process takes approximately 36 – 48hrs hours to produce the alcohol.
• Distillation:
Distillation is the process of boiling the liquid after fermentation and condensing its vapour to produce the alcohol that is then collected. The plant uses a multi-column, multi-tray, continuous distillation system to separate and concentrate the alcohol and congener components of the liquid mixture.
• Ageing:
After distillation, the rum is stored in 40 gallon oak barrels and moved to the warehouse for ageing. Angostura ages all of its rum for the minimum time stated on the label. Although the ageing process is not fully understood, it is considered to be the most significant aspect of the rum manufacturing process because the rum improves with age.
Rum ageing has been practices since the 1600’s when seafarers found that as rum was carried on long journeys in wooden barrels it improved even more and it also became darker in colour. During ageing many changes occur as a result of the oxidation and selective diffusion though the pores of the oak barrel and the chemical interaction between the congeners. Today all the ageing of rum is done in oak wood barrels that were previously used, predominantly for bourbon with some used for sherry.
• Blending:
Blending is the secret of fine rum. It allows the master blender to use many different types and styles of rum to create a particular blend. The skill of blending involves mixing light and heavy rums of different ages that have been carefully analysed and selected by the blender for their specific characteristics.
After the rum is blended it is stored in bottling vats and reduced to bottling strength by the addition of deionised water. It is then passed through filters and polishers before being bottled and packaged for sale. The end results are exceptionally smooth aged rums with notes of vanilla and wood.
V. Quality Control Procedures
(1) The company employs high technology equipment in the laboratory. Experts ensure that each product is carefully blended to perfection.
(2) Liquor inspection after the bottle have been filled and capped to ensure compliance with the worldwide quality standard and the final product were examined by experience quality inspectors.
Parameters: test methodologies, test frequency, control and reference materials, storage conditions, product quality attributes, packaging material/package attributes
• checking of the raw material according to standard
• withdrawal-measurement
The rum is aged to maturity in charred oak barrels to acquire a smooth flavor and amber color. The quality of aged rum is inspected prior to blending. The aged rum is blended with water, sugar and other ingredients in order to achieve the spirit’s desired level of quality then they are later on scrupulously examined by experienced quality inspectors according to Tanduay’s superior standards.
• Finished Products
• Parameters:
o Microbial Quality (Total Bacterial Count, Yeast and Mold Count, Presence of Lactobacilli , Presence of Coliforms, Presence of Staphylococci)
o Chemical Parameters (Titratable Acidity, Reducing sugar, Non- reducing sugar, Acid Value, Peroxide Value)
o Organoleptic Characteristics -Sensory Evaluation (Colour, Consistency, Aroma, Mouth-feel, Flavour,Taste, Overall acceptance)
• Application of qualitative and quantitative analysis with the use of necessary measuring instruments
• Examination by experienced Tanduay inspectors
The bottles are subjected to strict quality control inspection before it is sent to the bottling line, even the crowns or caps in the bottles are inspected to ensure compliance with worldwide standards. Labels are inspected too, label inspectors checks possible labeling defects. An encoder identifies each bottle for control purposes. The final output is then examined by experienced Tanduay inspectors.
VI. Instrumentation and Process Control

In order to monitor the quality of the labelling process, one technology is being used. Over the years, P.E. LABELLERS has offered the best of their experience and technology, and continues to do so even in 2012 by helping the customer make a leap in technology i.e., passing from the cold glue labelling system, used until now, to the self-adhesive technology with optical centering system and servomotors with integrated drive for the application of the new washable labels.
The customer’s request to switch to the application of wash-off labels was determined by the remarkable flexibility of self-adhesive labelling, given the opportunity to vary the design of the labels with more modern and appealing solutions without renouncing the easy-to-peel labels provided by the cold glue technology. The result: a maximum visual impact on the shelves, greater product sustainability, lower costs in format changeovers.
VII. Waste Generation, Control and Management
High-strength wastewater from distilleries, known as stillage or spent wash, typically contains large amounts of organics and inorganics, and varies depending on the feedstock used (molasses, sugar cane, cassava, grain, corn, etc.). This makes distillery wastewater an ideal candidate for anaerobic treatment.
ADI Systems’ anaerobic technologies reliably treat high-strength COD and suspended solids and convert it into biogas, a green fuel source that can be used at your plant. We have extensive experience treating distillery wastewater and our stable, robust treatment technology has the flexibility to adjust to various production processes.
Tanduay has entered into an agreement for the installation of a high-rate thermophilic anaerobic digester and lagoon system that will capture methane and use it at power for the distillation process. This will enable them to reduce its power cost by an estimate of 50% of current consumption levels. The project is being undertaken under the Clean Air Development Mechanism Project of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol — a UN sponsored program that aims to reduce the emissions of harmful gases like methane into the atmosphere which emissions are the primary cause of global warming. Due to the company’s strong and relentless efforts and dedication in protecting Mother Earth, it garnered numerous awards and recognitions from the national government and from different organizations here and across international waters.
VIII. Roles or Jobs of a Chemical Engineer
• Tanduay possesses a laboratory made for quality assurance with the latest state-of-the-art technology and handled by expert chemists ensuring that each Tanduay Rhum is blended with perfection.
• They also test the taste of the liquor by means of having a sample taste.

• Chemical engineers are responsible for the daily operation of the production line. They are in-charge in scheduling maintenance and downtime, scheduling production runs and employee workforce.
Processes in liquor industries handled by a process engineer includes:
? Blending systems for alcohol/water mixtures
? Water dehydration systems
? Filtration systems
? Storage tanks with tank management
? Batch mixing systems with starter vessels and dissolving tanks
? Continuous in-line blending control systems
? Combined blending systems
? High-Pressure Pumps and Homogenizers
? Alcohol distillation systems
? Carbonation systems
? Mobile metering systems
? Product tracing for internal accounting
? CIP systems
? Automation

• Chemical engineers can design Alcohol Plants for liquor industries that ensure highly efficient alcohol processing right from fermentation to distillation and evaporation with unique zero liquid discharge. Fuel Ethanol Plants and Fuel Alcohol Plants are two different categories of alcohol processing plants. The fermentation system of these plants must be designed on a very essential parameter that helps reduces the loss of alcohol in fomenters and increase the yield of alcohol by controlling the unwanted byproducts. The plants must be based on automation systems for making operations hassle free.
• Chemical engineers must provide a state-of-the-art fuel alcohol plants which are carefully processed top grade stainless steel in compliance with hygienic quality standards.
• Designing new products, new processes and new applications.
• They work with formulation chemists to define a new formula. They establish a pilot line for making said formula, test it out, walk it through a stage gate process for new products, then work with the project engineers to scale it up and put it into production.
Specifically researchers and developers including chemical engineers in a liquor company answer questions such as:
? What is the market size of spirits?
? What are the major brands in spirits?
? Are consumers switching from international spirits to ‘cheaper’ local spirits as consumer spending is being squeezed?
? What is the most popular price point for blended scotch; super-premium, premium, standard or economy and has the recession resulted in a switch?
? How do premium vs. standard vs. economy brands compete for sales?
? What are the key flavors in vodka?
• Chemical engineers condition waste waters to have an environmental advantage for the company. The high temperature of the spent wash from the distillation process has to be adjusted at least to the maximum values tolerable for the biologic degradation.
• The chemical engineer also conditions the pH-Value and has to be corrected by neutralization.
• Prepares weekly preventive maintenance, water and chemical consumption updates.
• Reviews Wastewater Treatment process performance and directs contractors to fix process discrepancies
• They advertise and convince potential customers to buy their products by enumerating the pros of purchasing their products.

IX. Observations and Recommendations
In alcohol production, the very important part is the fermentation of sugar and aging it to produce alcohol. It involves series of chemical reaction that entails careful setting of necessary conditions for the reaction to take place. Like for instance temperature at the Tanduay’s aging facility is maintained at a desired temperature.
Moreover in creating the alcohol blend via mixing tanks, mass balance will surely be applied in order to calculate for the right amounts of each mixture at specified concentration so as to produce the desired blend. Quality control was also very necessary for the company to assure that customers only received good products at its best.

Company Address:MWSS Compound, Katipunan Avenue, Balara, Quezon City
Date of Visit: January 10, 2017

I. Introduction
We are the leading water solutions company in the Philippines with a strong presence across Asia.
We provide safe, affordable and sustainable water solutions that enable those we serve to lead healthier, more comfortable lives.
“Maynilad Water Services, Inc. (Maynilad) is the water and wastewater services provider for the 17 cities and municipalities that comprise the West Zone of the Metropolitan Manila area. It is an agent and contractor of the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS).” (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)
“In 1997, Maynilad was granted a 25-year exclusive concession by the Philippine Government to operate, maintain and invest in the water and sewerage systems in the cities of Manila (all but portions of San Andres and Sta. Ana), Quezon City (west of San Juan River, West Avenue, EDSA, Congressional, Mindanao Avenue, the northern part starting from the Districts of Holy Spirit and Batasan Hills), Makati (west of South Super Highway), Caloocan, Pasay, Parañaque, Las Pinas, Muntinlupa, Valenzuela, Navotas and Malabon, all in Metro Manila; the cities of Cavite, Bacoor and Imus, and the towns of Kawit, Noveleta and Rosario, all in the Province of Cavite.” (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)
“The concession term was extended by 15 years in 2010, after Maynilad was required by the Philippine Government to increase and accelerate its wastewater investments. The term extension was reviewed and approved by the MWSS and Department of Finance.” (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)
“Maynilad Water Services, Inc. (Maynilad) was formed in 1997, after the consortium of Benpres Holdings Corporation and Suez Lyonnaise de Eaux won the exclusive right to provide water and wastewater services in the West Zone of Metropolitan Manila.” (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)
“Before then, the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS) was in charge of providing these services.” (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)
A Difficult Start
“Towards the end of 1997, Maynilad struggled to meet its service and financial obligations because of the Asian financial crisis and El Nino phenomenon. These events led to a string of financial, legal and regulatory disputes between Maynilad and MWSS.” (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)
“In 2005, Benpres and Suez ceded management and control of Maynilad to MWSS. A competitive bidding was done by the Philippine Government the following year to re-privatize Maynilad.” (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)
Change in Ownership
“DMCI-MPIC Water Company, a joint venture between Metro Pacific Investments Corporation (MPIC) and DMCI Holdings, Inc. (DMCI), won the competitive bidding and acquired 83.96% of Maynilad’s shares.” (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)
“On January 24, 2007, the new owners took over Maynilad and launched an aggressive five-year investment program to rehabilitate the company and its operations. (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)”
“In 2013, Marubeni Corporation of Japan acquired a 20% stake in DMCI-MPIC Water Company and became a strategic partner of the Metro Pacific-DMCI consortium. (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)”
Transforming Services, Improving Lives
“Since its re-privatization, Maynilad has spent over P47 billion to improve and expand its water services. As a result, over 9 million people in Valenzuela City down to Cavite City are now enjoying safe, reliable water supply.” (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)
“In the coming years, Maynilad will focus on accelerating its wastewater investments, while ensuring the water supply of its current and future customers.” (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)

• Water supply
“We provide our customers with piped-in water supply that meets the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water of the Department of Health. This means our water is safe and fit for drinking, bathing, cooking and other household activities.” (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)
“Our goal is to provide the entire West Zone with 24-hour supply at a minimum pressure of 7 psi (pounds per square inch).” (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)
• Sewerage
“Aside from delivering potable water, Maynilad provides sewerage services to its customers. Currently, only residents and establishments in Tondo, Sampaloc, South Manila, Malabon, Navotas, Caloocan, Projects 7 and 8 in Quezon City, Magallanes Village in Makati and parts of Muntinlupa may connect to Maynilad’s sewerage system.” (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)
• Septage
“Customers in areas not covered by Maynilad’s sewerage network dispose of their wastewater through their own septic tanks or sewerage treatment facilities (for big commercial and industrial customers).” (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)
“Residential and semi-business customers who are located outside sewered areas and maintain their own septic tanks may avail of Maynilad’s septic tank cleaning (desludging).” (Maynilad Water Services, Inc., 2017)
A. Raw Materials/Source
With the rapid increase in population of Metro Manila, the need for water supply has greatly increased as well. The metro draws 97% of its raw water supply from the Umiray-Angat-Ipo system in Norzagaray, Bulacan, and this has been the only source for decades. The heart of the system is the Angat Dam, which is a multi-purpose dam and is intended for power, irrigation and water supply. MWSS gets 4,000 MLD of water supply source from this facility and 60% of this is allocated to Maynilad. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) handles the maintenance of the Umiray watershed while the National Power Corporation (NPC), the power generating company, maintains the Angat watershed and the DENR, MWSS and the two concessionaires’, MWSI and MWCI, maintain the Ipo watershed. The remaining 3% of raw water supply is sourced from the Laguna Lake.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“The country’s water resources has a land area of 300,000, an annual rainfall of 2,400 mm run off collected from rainfall of 1,000 to 2000 mm and an estimated aggregate area for groundwater reservoir of 50,000 The surface water dependable water supply with 80% probability is 125.79 MCM. However, only 80% of the Philippine population has access to safe potable water.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“Maynilad, as the concessionaire for the West Zone of greater Metro Manila, recognized the increasing current and future water supply requirements and therefore sought to develop an alternate water source to help cater to the customers, specifically in Muntinlupa, Las Pinas and Cavite. The Laguna Lake was identified in 2009 as an alternate water source to Angat Dam. And in 2010, a state-of the-art treatment plant was built in Barangay Putatan, Muntinlupa, to make sure that water drawn from the lake is fit for domestic consumption.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“Laguna Lake (Laguna de Bay) is the largest lake in the Philippines located east of Metro Manila between the provinces of Laguna to the south and Rizal to the north. The freshwater lake has a surface area of about 911 km2 (352 sq. mi), with an average depth of about 2.8 meters (9 ft. 2 in) and an elevation of about 1 meter (3 ft. 3 in) above sea level. In order to reduce the flooding in Manila along the Pasig River, during heavy rains, the peak water flows of the Marikina River are diverted via the Manggahan Floodway to Laguna de Bay, which serves as a temporary reservoir. In case the water level on the lake is higher than the Marikina River, the flow on the floodway is reversed. In normal circumstances, both Marikina River and the lake drain through Pasig River to Manila Bay.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“The lake has been used as a navigation lane for passenger boats since the Spanish colonial era. It is also used as a source of water for the Kalayaan Pumped Storage Power Plant in Kalayaan, Laguna. Other uses of the lake includes fishery, aquaculture, recreation, food support for the growing duck industry, irrigation and a “virtual” cistern for domestic, agricultural and industrial effluents. Because of its importance in the development of the Laguna de Bay Region, unlike other lakes in the country, its water quality and general condition are closely monitored. At present, this important water resource has been greatly affected by development pressures like population growth, rapid industrialization, and resources allocation.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“The Angat multi-purpose dam located in Norzagaray, Bulacan has a capacity of 850 MCM with an operating level of 181 – 214M and a low level outlet at 101M. Angat watershed area, which is in the Northern tip of the Sierra Madre Mountain ranges, has an area of about 62,000 hectares. An additional 9 cu m / sec from the Umiray trans-basin tunnel flows to Angat daily from the Umiray River.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“The watershed areas of Angat Dam and the Umiray River are under attack by intruders and illegal loggers and their activities have resulted to mudslides and flash floods during storms and heavy rainfall. The result of the abuse especially in the watershed of Umiray River has been very costly. Aside from the problems for the treatment plants because of the very high incoming raw water turbidity exceeding 1000 NTU and Manganese that is dissolved by the raging floodwaters from the natural geological formation, lives were lost and properties were destroyed. The activities of the Dumagat, an indigenous tribe who lives primitively in the watershed are another source of some organic and biological pollutants of the water sources.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“Water from the Angat Dam flows to the Ipo Dam through the auxiliary turbines 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5 and terminates at the La Mesa Treatment Plants. Angat Dam releases 41 CMS daily from its five auxiliary turbines to Ipo Dam, which is no longer an impounding dam but a diversionary dam. From Ipo Dam the water flows and is diverted to a series of tunnels and aqueducts conveyance system of about 24 kms. terminating at the La Mesa portal where it is shared by Maynilad Water’s La Mesa Treatment Plants and Manila Water’s La Mesa Reservoir / Balara aqueducts on a 60 – 40 % split as per Concession Agreement.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)

B. Process Flowchart/Equipment

Figure 1a. Schematic Diagram – La Mesa Treatment Plant 1, Water Treatment Process

Figure 1b. Block Diagram – La Mesa Treatment Plant No 1, Water Treatment Process

Figure 2a. Schematic Diagram- La Mesa Treatment Plant 2, Water Treatment Process
Figure 2b. Block Diagram – La Mesa Treatment Plant No 2, Water Treatment Process

Figure 3. Putatan Water Treatment Plant Process Diagram
Simplified Process Flow Diagrams
A. La Mesa Treatment Plant 1 & 2

B. Putatan Water Treatment Plant

C. Groundwater

A. In process testing
“To ensure consistency in the daily operations of the water network and to meet customer requirements, the Maynilad Water Network Department including the seven Pumping Stations (PS) namely: La Mesa PS, Commonwealth PS, Caloocan PS, D. Tuazon PS, Algeciras PS, Villamor PS, and the Noveleta PS are certified ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001:2004, and BS OHSAS 18001: 2007. The management systems include methods for measuring and tracking customer satisfaction as well as the consistency in the procedures of the daily operations of the water network and pumping stations that result in a more consistent quality of drinking water delivered to the consuming public.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“Water quality and quantity are monitored regularly. There are 866 monitoring points in the distribution network to verify the quality of water produced both for surface and deep well water supply.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“The Central Laboratory performs regular examinations for bacteriological, biological, physical, and chemical analysis. Operational monitoring includes defining and validating the monitoring of the control measures and establishing procedures to demonstrate that the controls continue to work.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“All control measures identified as “critical” were assigned as “critical control points” and were monitored against “critical limits or operational limit” criteria. This critical/ operational limit is a criterion that will indicate whether the control measure is effective and is functioning as it was designed to be.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“Monitoring plan for the whole water supply system indicating an acceptable critical/operational limit for each control, designated monitoring locations, and established a schedule for frequency of monitoring and assigned responsible parties. Corrective actions to be taken in the event that monitoring reveals a parameter to be outside of the acceptable “limits” were also established.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
B. Finished Product – Parameters and Procedures
“As a member of the Metro Manila Drinking Water Quality Monitoring Committee (MMDWQMC), Maynilad meets monthly with government agencies, local government units and other private companies to monitor water quality in the greater Metro Manila area.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“To stabilize the pressure in the distribution system, water is stored temporarily in the twenty reservoirs which are operating at present; and the Eighteen (18) pumping stations, which all are operating at present except for Algeciras and D. Tuazon Pumping Station.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“Since 2010, Maynilad has consistently received 100% satisfactory compliance with the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water of the Department of Health.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“Compliance with drinking water quality standards is regulated by the Department of Health (DOH), the lead agency tasked to implement the Sanitation Code of the Philippines. In Metro Manila, the Metro Manila Drinking Water Quality Monitoring Committee (MMDWQC) monitors water quality compliance with Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water (PNSDW). This committee is headed by the DOH and meets and publishes water quality pronouncements every month.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“Water quality and quantity complaints are received by Business Areas, Call Centers and those referred or forwarded by member agencies of MMDWQC. These water quality andquantity complaints are investigated separately by the concerned Business Area Unit and the Central Laboratory Department.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)ft
“Verification through proper process control provides evidence that the overall system design and operation is capable of consistently delivering water of the specified quality to meet the health-based targets. It involves three activities: 1.) Compliance monitoring – confirmation of compliance with water quality targets, 2.) Internal and external auditing of operational activities – it can have both an assessment and a compliance checking role. The frequency of audit depends on the level of confidence required by the water utility and the regulatory body, 3.) Consumer satisfaction – includes checking that consumers are satisfied with the water supplied.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“In La Mesa Water Treatment plant 1&2, water control monitoring is done by the process control specialist to constantly monitor for residual chlorine, E. coli incursion, residual alum, Fe, sulfates and other chemical content; Manganese and Dissolved Oxygen, turbidity of the water, and jar test to verify correctness of dosage.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“Testing of treatment chemicals such as aluminum sulfate, polymer and polyaluminum chloride are also done in the laboratories every after delivery to test their concentration and quality.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“Maynilad also created management procedures which are clear documentation of operational procedures for actions to be taken when the system is operating under normal conditions, and incident situations. The procedures were written by experienced staff and are updated as necessary, particularly in light of implementation of the process controls, instrumentation, improvement/upgrade plan, review of incidents, emergencies and near misses. It also includes documentation of the system assessment, monitoring and communication plans and supporting programs.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“The water enters both treatment plants after traveling over 24 kilometers through tunnels and aqueducts from the Angat-Ipo-Bicti source network. Water passes through screens that prevent entry of foreign objects such as grass, leaves, tree limbs and other large floatables, thus protecting our rapid mixers, flocculators, regulated valves and flow meter sensors from damage.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
A. La Mesa Treatment Plant No. 1
“La Mesa Treatment Plant No. 1, located in Novaliches, Quezon City is Asia’s largest plant and fourth in the world, started operating in 1982 and was completed in 1983. It is standard conventional coagulation –flocculation – sedimentation – rapid gravity filtration-disinfection plant with no automation and minimal rehabilitation since its construction. It has very minimal electro mechanical equipment and relies mostly on hydraulic properties of water to backwash its filters and on gravity to convey raw water from the source, into the plant and out into the distribution system.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“Caustic soda is first applied as delivered in 50% concentration before the water enters the radial gates of LMTP 1. However, this is only conducted if there is a need for pH and/or alkalinity correction at the start. Hydrated or quick Lime is used as an alternate to caustic soda and prepared in a 2-3% concentration solution. In the coagulation process, rapid mixers uniformly disperse aluminum sulfate (8 to 8.5% alumina content and specific gravity of 1.32 to 1.326) throughout the raw water. After rapid mixing, the water enters the three stages flocculation chambers where polymer, as coagulant aid, is added in the first stage. Polymers could be cationic, anionic or non-ionic whichever is best suited for the quality of incoming raw water. It is prepared in different concentrations depending on the raw water turbidity being treated. Chlorine may also be added for pre-treatment disinfection where dosage depends on the demand.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“The 36 flocculators in each half of the plant is where water is gently agitated causing the small clusters of suspended solids to collide with and stick to each other and form into larger particles called ‘floc’. The water then enters the 12 sedimentation basins where the flocs are settled out by gravity. Intermediate chlorination can be applied in this process depending on the need. It then proceeds to the filtration process through the 24 filter units in the plant. In order to optimize the operation of the filter units, backwashing is conducted to remove the collected flocs with the backwashed water being sent to four lagoons for recovery or recycling back into the plant. Finally, the product water undergoes post-chlorination (residual chlorine of 1.0 to 1.5 ppm) before being sent out to the distribution system.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)

B. La Mesa Treatment Plant No. 2
“The La Mesa Treatment Plant No. 2 was designed and constructed under the Angat Water Supply Optimization Project (AWSOP) to supply water to the Northern part of Metro Manila (included in the West Service Zone as per Concession Agreement) and was commissioned in 1995. Designed by Degremont of France, it uses coagulation, flocculation, pulsator-clarifier, filtration, disinfection process having a design capacity of 900 million liters per day during maximum flow, with an allowable overload of 10% and can produce as high as 990 MLD.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
“The raw water passes through the bar screens to remove large objects such as rags, plastics bottles, and other floatables from entering the treatment plant.” (Maynilad Water Safety Plan, 2015)
Screened water then enters two repartition chambers where four flash mixers (2 for each repartition) uniformly disperse into the water various treatment chemicals as per the following injection order:
1. Caustic soda is applied as delivered at 50% concentration if required for pH and/or alkalinity correction/neutralization; hydrated or quick lime can be used as an alternative and prepared in 2-3% concentration solution.
2. Chorine for pre-treatment disinfection.
3. Primary coagulant – For LMTP1, Aluminum Sulfate is applied as delivered at 8.00 to 8.50% alumina content and specific gravity of 1.32 to 1.326. Both plants have provision to use Polyaluminum Chloride as well when the raw water turbidity is low.
4. Polymer, as coagulation aid, that could be cationic, anionic or non-ionic, whichever is suited, is prepared in concentrations dependent on raw water quality.
In coagulation, fine colloidal suspended solids are gathered into bulky and heavy flocs by introducing the coagulant into the raw water. The addition of polymer in the flocculation step hastens the cohesion and relatively increases the volume of the flocs formed. The water then flows into eight pulsator-clarifiers where the flocs are allowed to suspend at the clarifiers, which is regularly extracted by means of sludge draw-off valves. The pulsation increases the time of contact between the water and the sludge – forming blankets thereby, improving water quality. The blanket also serves as a pre-filter to the clarified water.
The clarified water then undergoes filtration through twenty (20) filter beds. These filters complete the treatment process by removal of the flocs, which escaped or had passed through the sludge blanket in the clarifiers. The filters undergo backwashing with the resulting backwash water stored in the recovery tank and is continuously recovered to combine with the incoming raw water for another cycle of treatment. The water coming from the filter then undergoes post-chlorination (residual chlorine of 1.0 to 1.5 ppm) before leaving the plant for distribution.
Other chemical used when beset with high Manganese content is Potassium Permanganate.
Both plants have pre-chlorination and post-chlorination (LMTP 1 has an additional intermediate chlorination provision) to handle high levels of algae and ensure the presence of required residual chlorine of the finished water up to the farthest end of the distribution system. Maynilad uses liquid-gas chlorine in its operation and there are no plans to shift to new disinfection systems in the near future. The use of chlorine has always been effective in treating the bacteriological and biological agents in water. Chlorine dosage is always within the safe and prescribed limits to meet the requirements set by the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water 2007 and by the MWSI Water Production Quality Plan. Seeing the importance of chlorination in the treatment of water, sufficient measures are also in place should there be any failures in the chlorination facilities.
During the dry season, manganese present in the low water levels in Angat Dam can enter with the raw water to the treatment plants. To address this, there is a stand-by potassium permanganate treatment unit to precipitate the dissolved manganese and remove it before it enters the pre-chlorination.
? Chemical engineers are tasked to provide constant monitoring of the influent and effluent water through water sampling in regular intervals.
? Residual Chlorine is monitored in the plants’ effluent every 2 hours in the effluent during normal operations. Then, residual chorine is monitored in chemically treated, settled and filtered water inside the plants every 4 hours during normal operations.
? E. coli proliferation is monitored in the plants’ effluent once a day. Residual Alum, Fe, Sulfates & other chemical content are also checked daily in the plants effluent. Manganese and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) are checked at the plants influent & effluent once a shift.
? A chemical engineer also observes turbidity in raw water, chemically treated, settled and clarified water, filtered and finished water every 2 hours for plants’ influent and effluent and every 4 hours for the other stages. They also perform Jar Test to verify the correctness of the chemical dose being applied at least twice a day.
? Chemical Engineers are also tasked to test the aesthetic quality acceptability of the water. Odor, taste and color of the water are monitored hourly.
? The application of chemical dose is also done by them. Calibration of chemical dose being applied is verified hourly to ensure continuous accuracy of application.
? Lastly, they are involved in the testing of treatment chemicals including aluminum sulfate, Polymer and Poly aluminum chloride every delivery to ensure chemical quality and concentration before usage.
Maynilad explained that one type of water distribution alone might not work because of different situations in community; there are different systems they use – gravity system, pumping system, and combined gravity and pumping system. In addition, they entertained different questions and they even encouraged us to try water industries later in our career. Since their facility is very huge, one can easily get lost so wearing the vests is an easy way to spot any lost tourists (us). The processes involved in Maynilad can be related to our subjects Industrial waste management and Environmental Engineering; both subjects discussed water treatment systems and processes.

Brgy. Bitin, Bay 4033 Poblacion, Laguna
Visited on January 12, 2017

I. Introduction
Aboitiz Power Corporation (AboitizPower, AP) is the holding company for the Aboitiz Group’s investments in power generation, distribution, and retail electricity services. Incorporated in 1998, Aboitiz Power is a publicly listed holding company that, through its subsidiaries and affiliates, is a leader in the Philippine power industry and has interest in a number of privately-owned generation companies and distribution utilities. Aboitiz Equity Ventures (AEV) currently owns 76.88% of the outstanding capital stock of AboitizPower as of March 27, 2015
A Better Future
We in AboitizPower consider it our responsibility to provide reliable and ample power supply when needed, ensure that the supply of electricity is provided at a reasonable and competitive price, and lastly accomplish the first two duties with the least possible adverse effects on our environment and our host communities
II. History
“The discovery well (Bulalo-1) was drilled in 1974, and commercial production began in 1979 with an installed plant capacity of 110 MWe. This was increased to 220 MWe in 1980, and 330 MWe in 1984. Binary units totaling 15.73 MWe were installed in early 1994, and two 20 MWe generating units were added in 1995 (Units 7 and 8) and another two units in 1996 (Units 9 and 10), bringing installed capacity to 425.73 MWe. In 2004-2005, Units 1-4 were rehabilitated and their generation capacity was increased to 63.2 MWe each. The installed capacity of Mak-Ban is now 458.53 MWe and this includes 15.73 MWe of binary units’ capacity and the 40 MW of the standby units of Plant D.Presently, the Steam Gathering System (SGS) consists of eight separation facilities, 11 km of steam lines, 63 km of twophase lines and 17 km of injection lines.” (Aboitiz Power Corporation, 2017)

2006 “In December 2006, SN Aboitiz Power-Magat, the joint venture between AboitizPower and SN Power of Norway, bid for and subsequently awarded the 360-MW Magat hydro plant in Northern Luzon.” (Aboitiz Power Corporation, 2017)

2007 “AboitizPower had an eventful year in 2007. In July, it became publicly listed at the Philippine Stock Exchange. In August, together with Vivant Energy Corporation of the Garcia Group, partnered with Global Business Power Corporation of the Metrobank Group to form Cebu Energy Development Corporation (CEDC) for the construction and operation of a 246-MW coal-fired plant in Cebu island.” (Aboitiz Power Corporation, 2017)

2008 “In July 2008, AboitizPower, through wholly owned subsidiary Aboitiz Power Renewables, Inc., (APRI) won the bid for and was awarded the Tiwi-Makban geothermal facilities. Tiwi-Makban consists of several power stations located in the provinces of Quezon, Laguna, Batangas and Albay in Luzon island. The Tiwi-Makban geothermal plants recorded a combined peak generation of 467 MW in 2009.” (Aboitiz Power Corporation, 2017)

2009 “In October 2009, AboitizPower, through wholly owned Therma Luzon, Inc. (TLI), bid for and was awarded an Independent Power Producer-Administrator (IPPA) contract for the output of the 700-MW coal-fired Pagbilao power plant in Quezon province.” (Aboitiz Power Corporation, 2017)

2010 “In February and March 2010, AboitizPower through its subsidiary, Therma Mobile, assumed ownership and operations of PB118 (renamed Mobile 1) and PB117 (renamed Mobile 2), after acquiring the two power barges from PSALM for U.S.$30 million through a negotiated bid concluded last July 31, 2009. Each of the barge-mounted, diesel-powered generation plants has a generating capacity of 100 MW. PB 117 and PB 118 are moored in Nasipit, Agusan del Norte and Barangay San Roque, Maco, Compostela Valley, respectively.” (Aboitiz Power Corporation, 2017)

2011 “In April 2011, AboitizPower entered into a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) to bring about a corporate restructuring intended to give it sole ownership of LHC. The acquisition would allow AboitizPower to capitalize on the operating synergies gained by combining Bakun Hydro with the 10 other small to medium hydro power plants it already owns and operates in Northern Luzon.” (Aboitiz Power Corporation, 2017)

2012 “Hedcor, Inc. began the commercial operations of Irisan Hydro 1 following the grant of a Certification of Compliance from the DOE in April 30, 2012.” (Aboitiz Power Corporation, 2017)

2013 “SN Aboitiz Power-Benguet (SNAP-Benguet) has completed the rehabilitation of the Binga Hydroelectric Power Plant (Binga HEPP). From its original capacity of 100 MW, the Binga HEPP in Benguet now has a capacity of 126 MW. The rehabilitation was done one unit at a time to keep the plant running. This began in April 2011 and ended in July 2013.” (Aboitiz Power Corporation, 2017)

2014 “Hedcor Tudaya, Inc. owns and operates the Tudaya 1 and 2 hydroelectric power plants in Davao del Sur. The hydropower plants reside at Barangay Sibulan and Barangay Astorga in Sta. Cruz, Davao del Sur. The construction started in the last quarter of 2012 with a total investment of almost Php2.4 billion. The hydro facilities supply Davao Light and Power Company and Davao del Sur Electric Cooperative with reliable and reasonable power.
Unified Leyte Geothermal
Aboitiz Energy Solutions, Inc. (AESI) owns the 40-MW supply strips of the Unified Leyte Geothermal Power Plant (ULGPP) complex after it has secured the Independent Power Producer (IPP) administrator contract from Power Sector Assets and Liabilities Management Corporation (PSALM). PSALM bid out strips of the power plant’s capacity to various IPP administrators.” (Aboitiz Power Corporation, 2017)

2015 “Hedcor Sabangan, Inc. own and operates the 14-MW Sabangan hydroelectric power plant to deliver an additional 55 gigawatt-hours of clean and renewable energy annually to the Luzon Grid. Using a modern run-of-river system, the Sabangan hydro harnesses the natural force of the Chico River of Bukidnon by diverting part of the water into the system. The water then exits the powerhouse and goes back to the river.” (Aboitiz Power Corporation, 2017)

III. Products
IV. Manufacturing Process

Geothermal power plants harness steam from the hot fluid recovered below the Earth’s surface to generate energy, while the separated water is returned to the reservoir, helping in regenerating the steam source.

Elements of Geothermal System
Four elements compose a geothermal system, namely:
1. A heat source, which is the magma that comes close to the surface of the earth in volcanic areas.
2. A permeable underground reservoir rock, which can hold or store water.
3. A solid cap rock, which maintains pressure and does not allow the heat, water or steam to escape.
4. Water, which serves as the medium for carrying the heat.

Source of Steam
Geothermal reservoirs consist mainly of rainwater or “meteoric water” that seeps slowly via cracks and faults. This water ultimately reaches depths of over 3 kilometers where it is heated by hot rocks. Hot geothermal fluids are tapped by wells at depth and flashed into steam at the surface or at the wellbore.
One way to recharge a geothermal reservoir is by reinjecting the spent geothermal fluids. If done properly, reinjection can help maintain reservoir volume and pressure. However, reinjecting cold brine too close to production wells can adversely affect steam production.

How is geothermal energy converted into electricity?
Geothermal steam is extracted from the reservoir through steel pipes. A mixture of hot water and steam under its own pressure flows up to the pipe. Upon reaching the surface, the water and steam pass through a separator to separate the water and steam and through a scrubber to remove any impurities. The steam is directed to a power plant to spin the blades of a turbine while the condensed water is re-injected back to the reservoir. Attached to the turbine is a generator which produces the electricity.


1. Underground reservoir is heated by molten rock in the Earth’s core. The pressure from the heat and the steam causes it to move to a projection well.
2. The hot water and steam from the production well moves into a separator, dividing the liquid and steam. The leftover water that does not turn into steam moves into a separate pipe to be reintroduced to the reservoir.
3. Steam goes through a turbine and spins it.
4. The turbine is coupled with a generator, which produces electricity.
5. Electricity is increased in voltage by a transformer and sent through power lines.
6. The leftover steam is moved into a condenser, then it is mixed with cool recycled water causing the steam to turn back into liquid and flow into the cooling tower.
7. The cooling tower chills the water while giving off air and water vapour from the top of the tower.
8. The cooled water is either pumped back into the condenser or into the injection well to go back into the ground to once again turn into steam.

V. Quality Control Procedures
The most important power plant parameters are:
1. Steam conditions: Optimum turbine inlet steam pressure. Gas (% NCG) in steam.
2. Size (thickness and areal extent), and long term capacity, and natural recharge.
3. Temperature and pressure of deep resource fluid.
4. Chemical composition (liquid and gas phase) of deep fluid.
5. Geology, stratigraphy, lithology and geothermal reservoir properties (faults,
fractures, formation porosity, mineral alteration types and age, type of permeability).
6. Reservoir permeability.
7. Thickness of production/injection zones.
8. Well productivity/injectivity.
9. Two phase zones.
10. Reservoir response to production/injection.
11. Natural state modelling, computer simulation of reservoir, and model predictions.
12. Reservoir monitoring and management.
VI. Instrumentation and Process Control
Instrumentation in the power plant is important and plays a major role for a safe and efficient operation. Mostly instrumentation is related to the control system of the plant. In power plants different parameters need to be measured and monitored whether they are within the limit or not. Measurements are taken for proper operation of the plant and for environmental protection.
For environmental impact, chemicals such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) should be monitored. It should not be in excess, endangering personnel health and possibly causing electrical equipment damage. On the other hand, for the plant operation, pressure, temperature and flow measurement is necessary. There are limits and constraints for normal operation and for minimum impact on the environment. Turbine and generator instrumentation is also an important aspect in an electricity generating plant. The measurements in this case include, but are not limited to, the following parameters:
• Turbine – generator vibration and centring;
• Bearings oil level and temperature;
• Oil level and temperature in the gearbox;
• Temperature in the stator core and winding and rotor compartment;
• Active and reactive power of the generating unit, the reactive power is especially important so the generator will not fall out off synchronisation;
• Finally, generator voltage, current, and frequency is also important.
The control and instrumentation systems provide the following for the plant operation:
• Maintain adequate margins between operating conditions and safety and operational constraints;
• Automatically, shut down the plant if important constraints are violated;
• Monitor the margin from constraints and normal plant operation and provide immediate information and permanent records for subsequent analysis;
• Draw the attention of the operator, by effective alarm system of the monitoring system, to any unacceptable reduction in margins so that the operator can take appropriate remedial action.
Instrumentation systems can be standard, custom made, digital or computer-based depending on how old the system is and on the data to be recorded, the point where the data can be taken, and the form of the data to be processed. Normally, the measurements are either analog or digital. Digital instrumentation systems make the data easy to transmit and process and is the norm today.

VII. Waste Generation, Control and Management
As mentioned earlier, the plant uses separators and filters to remove hot liquid and gasses from the system. These are then routed back to the geothermal reservoir through the use of an injection well. Most unwanted gasses are returned to the depths of the earth. The use of scrubbers, on the other hand, further controls the amount of unwanted gasses in the system. This in turn produces a watery sludge composed of the captured materials. The company hires accredited third-party contractors to haul, treat, and dispose these sludge and unwanted chemicals.

VIII. Roles or Jobs of a Chemical Engineer
A. Quality Control
• Handling and analysis of raw materials.
• Making sure that the taste, strength and appearance of each batch of beer remains consistent.
• Monitoring the production process at regular intervals, testing samples and making adjustments where necessary.
• Inspection of bottle, liquor, and label quality and consistency.

B. Process Engineer
• Specialise in a single stage of the brewing process.
• Scheduling and coordinating work to tight deadlines and within financial budgets
• Maintainance of ageing barrels and compounded liquor to ensure consistent supply of materials to production line
• Ensuring the efficient utilization and maintenance of process equipment so as to preclude process related problems. Physical and mechanical conditions of process equipment must be properly maintained and corrective actions must be initiated if necessary.
• Handling of bottling process.
• Ensuring the security and safety measures on the process areas are strictly implemented.

C. Design
• Designing and building of economic and efficient facilities and processes.
• Specification of machinery and equipment layout, considering construction and corrosion aspects.
• Designing of measurement and control systems or programs.

D. Research and Development
• Development and setting standards for new product.
• Coming up with new and improved formulations for a product.
• Performing productivity studies and raw materials studies in the plant.
• Using of statistical analyses of monitoring data, process trends, and other quality indicators, identifying opportunity areas for improvements.

E. Wastewater Treatment
• Operation of demineralized water treatment plant.
• Management of plant’s wastewater treatment facility, ensuring full compliance with applicable local laws and regulations.
• Preparation and prompt submission of periodic environmental reports as required by the environment regulatory agencies such as the DENR.
• Guaranteeing all applicable environmental permits are timely renewed, current and valid.
• Leading the conduct of environmental risk assessments in the plant.
• Development and execution of required environmental programs such as solid waste management, hazardous waste management, air emission management, and spill prevention.

IX. Observations and Recommendations
Some of the pipes are not well maintained. Coatings are peeled off the pipes. Some of the pipes are not functioning due to old age and to lack of resources, steam acquired underground.
To be able to generate more electricity recycling is employed, this is to make sure that the company still meets the requirement needed, and to supply enough amount of electricity to avoid blackouts. The causes of electricity shortage are due to higher electricity consumption rate and low amount of electricity being generated.