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Mr. Fatek Saeed Computer Science Engineering Galgotias University Greater Noida, India Abstract – The security, in the present time, presents extremely a critical issue in building up an e-learning framework. Rising standards for distance learning and instruction impact significantly the improvement of e-learning frameworks. As a matter of fact, E-learning framework must be secured against controlling both the side of the student and ensures clients protection. Moreover, the most imperative of the data over the Internet is as content, it is a piece of e-books, articles, sites, news, talks, messages, and short messages. Content reports confront numerous dangers, for example, replicating, altering, counterfeiting, generating, and rewording assaults. Digital watermarking utilized for the security of the content and to shield the information from illicit users and gives the proprietorship ideal to the computerized information, it is solutions for images, audio, and video are already in place but the number of answers for plain content is insufficient. This paper endeavours to shade light on the Text watermarking and its security application issues related to e-learning. KEYWORDS-E-Learning,Security, Watermarking, Content verification, and tamper detection. 1 Introduction At the outset, it is necessary to mention that Internet as well technology has a great effect on the society. It creates a new revolution in the 21st century. Surely, everything and everyone is getting on-line. The development of information technology and communication techniques in the field of education is not so far without getting involved to the Internet. Computer based learning or on-line learning can be referred as an e-learning. As a matter of fact, E-learning is an interactive process of learning in which the learning content is available on-line and supplies automatic feedback to the students learning activities. Thus, using the Internet to enhance e-learning has become a trend in modern higher education institutes. For the last years, people were being able to hide digital information has captured the imagination of researchers, and therefore there has been an increasing demand for security technologies, especially for Digital Watermarking (DW). Using DW in e-learning has been increasing rapidly and has become an important part of the strategy for ensuring an on-line e-learning certificate. It is because of the new technology that it could solve the problem of enforcing the copyright of Dr. Anurag Dixit Computer Science Engineering Galgotias University Greater Noida, India content transmitted across the shared networks. The DW enables a copyright holder to insert a hidden message with images, pictures, sound files and even a raw text. This paper aims to develop and create a novel approach to DW for an on-line certificate so that it can increase the trustworthiness of e-learning systems in institutions all over the world. This approach tries to enable these institutions to make use of the on-line certificate through adding a watermark that can be trusted by some other institutions. The most important driving force is concern over protecting copyright, such as audio, for video and other works available now in digital form. It might be that the ease to which perfect copies can be made will lead to large-scale of illegal copying, which will in turn undermine the creation of new films, books, pictures, etc 20. The content of integrity is a vital for e-learning world it is capable to identify changes in learning contents. In this case, the algorithms of text watermarking mainly depend on some properties such as the language of text, text size, text structures, grammatical rules and writing styles. 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This paper depends on our reading of a wide range of digital watermarking literatures the previous studies related to watermarking technique are discussed as follows The main contribution in new paper 1 is described more deferent literature survey from number of good papers that incorporate poor information from simple to advance and a few techniques are examined in the range of Arabic content watermarking with its points of interest and burdens. While the Arabic content is the most broadly utilized than other type of media, it will require a decent technique to secure its isolation. The majority of diacritics-based on techniques are easy to execute and give higher capacity and robustness than other. They told that, it cant be utilized as a part of content in which the presence of all diacritics is imperative like Holly Quran and most e-content today is composed without diacritics. Indeed, even of the straightforwardness of shifting (line, word or points) strategies, it have a major downside which is the capacity to crush the watermark is high when retyping or printing and they are perceptible by OCR (Optical Character Recognition) these days,. The work on 2 arranged content watermarking systems into image-based techniques, syntactic-based manipulation, and semantic-based manipulation procedures which included supplanting the first content with option words keeping in mind the end goal to insert a shrouded message while protecting the implications beyond what many would consider possible. Adnan Abdul-Aziz Gutub et al. in 3 enhanced technique for Arabic e-content watermarking. Arabic e-text contains exceptional characters which are of unique properties to be considered for watermarking. The extension Arabic character Kashida were utilized to propose an enhanced strategy for Arabic e-content watermarking. All the extendable characters are altogether extraordinary to be utilized as watermark bits. Utilizing the traditional cryptography method, the Kashida characters could be embedded inside cover content. The copyright components could be kept up without trading off to the security regardless of the possibility that the some extra secret information bits embedded. In 7, the authors produced the overview for last works in safeguarding the e-learning frameworks. They additionally classified the elearning insurances into a few gatherings in view of wellspring of defencelessness, i.e., client security assurance, content assurance and online application assurance. Paper reviews the present assurances to address the exposures of the e-learning frameworks. Paper depicted a few e-learning undertakings can be sorted as open source ELMS frameworks. In another paper 8 clarified the issues and dangers related with confirmation of integrity, evidence of legitimacy, tamper detection and copyright insurance for digital content. Proposed a hybrid techniques based on zero-watermarking and computerized signature similar controls for delicate content reports keeping in mind the end goal to accomplish content creativity and integrity verification without physically adjusting the cover message in any case. The algorithm can be utilized to ensure electronic files and computerize textual content from tampering, falsification and illicit substance control while evacuating numerous usage redundancies and complexities found in past plans. Furthermore, it can accomplish powerful insurance and realness confirmation while its computational expenses and nature of results got are totally down to earth. The authors in 9 compared between digital watermarking and different procedures of information covering up, for example, Steganography, Fingerprinting, cryptography and Digital mark strategies. Analysts have chosen more secure digital watermarking because the cyber-crime is expanded day by day. The WM allows us to stamp the data which is to cover up and give us simple and effective security arrangements of numerous sorts of digital information like pictures, sound, video and content. The P. Kaur P. Bhambri in 15 have proposed a zero text watermarking algorithm based on occurrence frequency of vowel ASCII characters and articles for copyright protection of plain content. Algorithm is converging of watermarking and encryption. Whereas unique author inserts the copyright data in content and it produces the watermark, key utilizing implanting algorithm, Watermark embedding is completed by the first author and detection done later by the copyright owner (CA) to demonstrate ownership. However, their strategy tried under the insertion and deletion tampering attacks. The creators utilized accuracy denotes how precisely recover watermark from the attacked content. Furthermore, the researcher has utilized MATLAB rendition R2013b to demonstrate the watermark and the key that is produced by algorithm and utilized for demonstrated the watermark detection prepare. A zero oriented watermarking method was introduced by Qi and Liu 16 for Chinese text. This method of approach made use of the text value expectation and the entropy for the various parts of speech frequency for creating the watermark message and the subsequent registration with the CA. The results derived from this method elevated robustness to various aspects like synonym substitution, paragraph justification, font changing, conversion, and format and space deletion. When it comes to many other zero watermarking algorithms, things like rewriting, deletion and insertion of text can result in improper detection of watermark 16. Jalil et al. (2010), in his study, claimed that a zero text watermarking algorithm is based on the occurrence frequency of non-vowel with all the ASCII characters and words for the copyright protection of the plain text. For better generating a specialized author key, embedding algorithm tries to make use of frequency non-vowel ASCII characters and words. The key is used by the extraction algorithm to extract watermark. Thus, it will be easy to identify the original copyright owner. Decidedly, the experimental results demonstrate that the effect of the proposed algorithm, on text encountering meaning, preserving attacks performed by the proposed five independent attackers 17. Tayan et al. (2013) suggested that there are two approaches (Method A and B) as a robust zero-watermarking. These are proposed as capable of detecting and examining any content-modifications in the case of avoiding any embedding /modifications of the original text that need to be disseminated. The two mentioned above methods provide a great deal indication in the relative sensitivities of each approach for the third-party modifications in the case of the phase key-extraction. This paper tries to contribute in presenting a comparative analysis of the some newly proposed methods in contrast with the existing relevant state of the art techniques. This is based on two cost functions, specifically applicable to our targeted application scope with promising results. At last, the derived system was found capable to achieve a pivotal requirement by ensuring the textual-content that could be traced back to its original publisher for different authentication purposes. That is to say it had detected document-tampering similar to the case of third-party modifications 12. Jalil et al. (2010), is the other person who introduced an anther innovative zero-watermarking algorithm for the purpose of a tamper identification and detection of documents in a plain text. In fact, watermark is produced by the algorithm that depends on the contents of the text. This can be drawn out from the extraction algorithm trying to find out the tampering status in the document of the text. Effectiveness of the algorithm against the random tampering attacks can be clearly seen or identified by examining the experimental results. The matching and the distortion pattern rate of the watermark can be utilized as evaluation frameworks on the multiple text of different length. They plan to expand and include the phenomenon of the multiple occurrences of letters in a single word for the future of embedding watermarks 18. 3 Threats and Risks in E-learning Systems Actually, a developing number of threats can cut a site down day by day. These threats incorporate hacker assaults, infections (viruses), Internet worms, content tampering and steady Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. Firstly, there are five common threats of web sites SQL injection, remote file content, local file content, remote command execution and cross site scripting 7. Secondly, to secure the e-learning environment, it requires avoiding the four types of risks (i) Fabrication (iii) Modification (ii) Interruption and Interception 13. Table 13 shows the issues and solutions offered by some researchers. Some of these researchers have offered the policy solution some others provide techniques such as the watermarking that is used for main two issues Protection against manipulation (integrity verification) and copyright protection. Table1 E-Learning security issues IssueSolution Secure distributionVirtual privet networkFirewallIntrusion detection systemSSL (encryption)Protection against manipulationData encryptionWatermarkingAccess Control list (ACL) User authenticationAccess controlPublic key encryptionWatermarkingPasswordsSmart cardsBiometric Identification AvailabilityBackup systemDistributed file systemsSuffusion bandwidthTopology Copyright protectionWatermarkingFingerprintingAccess control list (ACL)Policy definition Shortcomings in the functionality of the WWWDesigned as unifying mechanism for the retrievalDesigned as unifying mechanism for presentation of various internetworked resources3.1 SECURITY of E-LEARNING SYSTEM One-stop shop protection may be an improper solution to meet all security requirements and design specifications of new or existing e-learning systems. Some security techniques have been proposed to address these security problems in the last few years. While a researcher is concern to address user privacy, another may focus to solve a problem on trust interaction between user and e-learning provider. All efforts to address security problems are identified in previous section are discussed in this section. It covers the user privacy protection, content protection and web-based application protection. 7 3.2 Techniques for Content Authentication in elearning Systems Participants of e-Learning system face different risks or threats. Following tools or techniques are imposed to minimize those risks. Access control using Firewall Digital Right Management technique Cryptography Secret-key algorithms Public-key algorithms Neural Cryptography Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) Biometric Authentication Digital Watermarking 3.3 Design Issues of Content Authentication in elearning Systems Currently, many tools have been developed to support e-learning, for example learning management system (LMS), learning content management system (LCMS), and educational learning management system (ELMS). LMS is designed to support corporate learning and educational learning. This tool enables companies to align the learning initiatives with companies strategic goals. Moreover, LMS provides also a viable meaning in enterprise-level skills management. If LMS is focused on managing learners however, LCMS concerns on learning content development. LCMS reuses content chunks and make them available to course developers. Although ELMS is almost similar to both LMS and LCMS, but ELMS is developed only for online learning, and typically does not have classroom registration feature. In fact, ELMS assumes that the instructor is always available for building course content and communicating with students. Several e-learning projects, Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (Moodle), Caroline, and a Tutor, can be categorized as an open source ELMS 7. Content Authentication Content Authentication and LCMS In this subsection, we will present the vital design issues related to components of LCMS part which are content authoring and creation, Learning object repository, navigational control, assessment, question bank creation, and certification. The core design issues of content authentication that should address in these components are security, complexity, sensitive and robustness. Each of them will be discussed in some details as follows In case of content authoring and creation and component, content authentication issue should be embedded by administration and teachers agents during the creation stage of several e-learning materials such as lectures, exams and assignments by using any technique that mentioned above. It is also required in all designed issues in middle level in case of non-sensitive documents such as lectures. However, it is required in high level in case of sensitive documents such as assignments and exams. In the case of navigational control component, content authentication issue required commonly from the side of students and teachers and from the sides of administration before using the required materials. In cases of assessment, question bank creation and certification components, security, complexity sensitive and robustness issues should applied in high level in which the elements of these components are so sensitive and should be evaluated in term if it is authentic or not. Content Authentication and LMS Sub-components of LMS that require authentication of its contents are three core components which are resource management and delivery interfaces for learning, courseware learning objects and Testing and Test administration. Interaction between these components usually takes place between teachers and students. Documents and materials nature of these components are lectures, assignments, exams and results. So, as same as in case of LCMS, design issues that should be addressed in these components are security, complexity, sensitivity and robustness. In case of exams and results, its contents are so sensitive. However, it can be performed in middle level in case of other documents and materials of this component for reason the tampering of these documents not critical. Content Authentication and Virtual Classrooms The main goal is to expand the customary classroom structure by moving it outside the university campus to distribute learners crosswise over various land districts. It is useful for the individuals who look after their learning out there mode and the course is completely on the web. They would profit by constant collaboration with different learners and personnel through the web. Content Authentication and Soft Computing Techniques The more capable digital watermarking scheme can be displayed and established using a mixture of digital watermarking along with recent soft computing tools thats called artificial intelligent algorithms like genetic algorithm, neural networks, and fuzzy logic, that is based on digital multimedia features and application nature. For example, we can use combined digital watermarking with neural networks technique in order to improve authentication process on digital images and videos to detect tampering on multimedia content. Content Authentication and Biometrics Techniques Digital watermarking can be established using a mixture of digital watermarking with fresh biometric techniques such as Iris, Voice, and Signature based on human features and application nature to create great system. Such handwriting biometric attribute has been embedded as a watermark in the form of signatures, pass phrases, and sketches for the purposes of user authentication, ownership identification, and verification of digital content. Content Authentication and Natural Language Processing Techniques Text is composed of sentences, sentences in turn, are composed of words, and words can be nouns, verbs, articles, prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, etc. Sentences have different syntactic structure which depends on language and its structural rules. Applying syntactic transformations on text structure to embed watermark had been also one of the approaches towards text watermarking in the past. All the characteristic properties of a text are preserved while embedding watermark that should be also further analyzed into morphemic syntactic tools. The syntax-based natural language watermarking scheme is the natural language watermarking algorithm that can be done by performing the morph syntactic transformations to the text. Content Authentication and Information Hiding Techniques The sudden increase in watermarking interest is most likely due to the increase in concern over copyright protection of content. The first technique content owners turn to is cryptography. Cryptography is probably the most common method of protecting digital content. It is certainly one of the best developed scientific method. Unfortunately, cryptography can protect content in transit, but once decrypted, the content has no further protection. Similarly, there are some defects in other existing techniques for information secure. Digital signature cannot embed a large number of information into host data digital label is very easy to be modified and deleted digital fingerprint can only provide the information of copyright saboteurs. Thus, there is a strong need for an alternative or complement to these techniques. Digital watermarking has the potential to fulfill this need, because it embeds information into the host data or constructed binary pattern, where it is very difficult to be removed during normal usage. At present, digital watermarking has been receiving more and more attention from international academic circles. As the early wrong understanding on digital watermarking security that the watermark can be regarded as secure if it is imperceptible and cannot be removed by normal processing, most of early research on multimedia watermarking, which were designed for copyright protection and copy control, focused on watermarking robustness. On the contrary, the research on watermarking security received little attention in the watermarking community. The primary difficulty is that security and robustness are neighboring concepts, which are hardly perceived as different. Up to now, there is no consensus that has reached about the exact definition of watermarking security 20. Fig. A digital watermarking system 4.2 Classification Based on the Main Content Type Image video , audio and text Text-Based Content Authentication Text is the most widely utilized medium going over the Internet other than image, audio, and video. The significant piece of books, news, site pages, ads, research papers, authoritative archives, letters, e-books, chats, SMS, verse, and numerous different documents is basically the plain content. Content documents face numerous different threats for example tampering, copying, reproduction, plagiarism, and reordering attacks. Watermarking text plain has become one of the most important areas in the modern scientific research. It may represent a click-start in opening a new scope in digital security world. In this scenario, it will represent the corner stone in solving the authentication problems of digital watermarking. In this regard, it will not only solve the authentication problem, instead it will play a significant role in protection them. Generally, we can classify the approaches on digital text watermarking into the following categories an image-based approach, a syntactic approach, a semantic approach and a structural approach 22. Text watermarking algorithms are dependent on some properties such as text size, text language, rules, grammar, conventions, and writing styles. Many mechanisms and researches have been applied to hide data within texts and in different languages depending on the feature and characters of the letters of each language. Text watermarking methods can be classified into two main classes linguistic coding and formatting or appearance coding methods. 21 There are two main issues in content watermarking the first is Content Authentication and integrity a technique that undertakings to guarantee the integrity of media by noticing attempted tampering/altering of the first content. The content is normally watermarked by a semi- fragile watermark which is intended to be affected by signal transformations. Tampering with the content must to pulverized or modified this semi-fragile watermark which could be then utilized to confirm that the text is not genuine. Second issue in content watermarking is Tamper Detection. When database text is utilized for extremely basic applications, for example, business exchanges or medical applications, guarantee that the text was begun from a particular source and that it had not been changed, controlled or distorted. This can be accomplished by inserting a watermark in the hidden information of the database. In the digital copyright security, ordinarily utilize robust watermarking to help the plagiarism attacker while fragile watermark use for data integrity and data hiding applications that utilization exceptionally sensitive information. 4.3 Classification Based on the Techniques Used Figure Digital watermarking classification. 8 4.4 Linguistic Coding Syntactic Approach Text content comprises of sentences. Sentences contained words also, and words could be nouns, verbs, articles, coordinators, prepositions, adverbs, adjectives, etc. Sentences incorporate different syntactic structures that are dictated by dialect and its specific traditions. Using syntactic changes on text content structure keeping in mind the end goal to embed watermark has been presented as of late as one of the few systems towards content watermarking. The syntactic arrangements are more relevant to agglutinative dialects like Arabic, Turkish and Korean than the English dialect 2. In a matter of seconds syntactic alludes to Watermarking content by changing the structure of the sentence without changing any words. Semantic Approach Semantic-based methodologies of content report watermarking attention on the semantic organization of the components of the file for example, verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, the spelling of the words, equivalent word, acronyms, and so on23. In a syntactic watermark the structure of the sentence is changed to insert a watermark, while in a semantic watermark the content is adjusted without changing its intending to insert a watermark. For instance, this water is triangular in syntax is right (Syntactic) however, no importance its wrong significance (semantic) the real expressions of the content are changed so as to implant a watermark in the file. For example, the sun shines in the evening, in syntactic grammar is correct but semantically, is wrong. Natural Language Processing Approach Actually Natural Languages refer to the languages spoken by people in their everyday life, like English, Arabic, Hindi, French,.. etc. whereas Natural Language Processing means Automatic analysis of people language by computer algorithms. The Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques are used to analyse the syntactic and the semantic structure of text while performing any alterations to embed the watermark bits. Natural Language Processing Techniques Text is composed of sentences, sentences in turn, are composed of words, and words can be nouns, verbs, articles, prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, etc. Sentences have different syntactic structure which depends on language and its structural rules. Applying syntactic transformations on text structure to embed watermark had been also one of the approaches towards text watermarking in the past. All the characteristic properties of a text are preserved while embedding watermark that should be also further analyzed into morphemic syntactic tools. The syntax-based natural language watermarking scheme is the natural language watermarking algorithm that can be done by performing the morph syntactic transformations to the text. Applications for processing large volumes of contents where more than 20 billion sheets of papers in the internet require NLP skills. There are some Apps of NLP Semantic search in web Machine translation Speech recognize Social web sites analysis Bio-medical Science of forensic Marketing Ads learning Policies E-government Business improvement Conclusion Watermarking text plain has become one of the most important areas in the modern scientific research. It may represent a click-start in opening a new scope in digital security world. In this scenario, it will represent the corner stone in solving the authentication problems of digital watermarking. In this regard, it will not only solve the authentication problem, instead it will play a significant role in protection them. Content verification and tamper detection of digital image, audio, and video have been given due thought by the researchers in the past, but text documents have been ignored, also the research on text watermarking schemes mainly focused on issues of copyright protection, but less on content integrity verification, and tamper detection. Future Work In future more work is required to be done in the area of security of text watermarking. In next paper novel embedding algorithm The Hybrid Structural component and word length (HSW) based zero watermarking technique will proposed The watermark is registered with the certifying authority with the original plain text, author name, date and time. The proposed watermarking technique generates the watermark based on the characteristics of plain text rather than embedding the text itself. The extraction algorithm for HSW is utilized in which the watermark is extracted from the text and it produces the watermark pattern. References N. Barik and S. Karforma, R ISKS AND REMEDIES IN E-L EARNING SYSTEM, IJNSA., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 5159, 2012. J. C. Byungura, E-learning management system for thesis process support from a supervisor perspective, no. May, 2015. C. Paper, M. Satria, U. Teknologi, A. Samad, and I. Universiti, A survey of e-learning security A Survey of E-learning Security, no. December, 2015. O. Tayan, M. N. Kabir, and Y. M. Alginahi, A hybrid digital-signature and zero-watermarking approach for authentication and protection of sensitive electronic documents., ScientificWorldJournal., vol. 2014, p. 514652, 2014. G. Kaur and K. Kaur, Digital Watermarking and Other Data Hiding Techniques, Int. J. Innov. Technol. , no. 5, pp. 181183, 2013. K. E. B. K. Rameshbabu, P. Prasannakumar, Text Watermarking Using Combined Image Text, Int. J. Eng. Res. 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Aljawarneh S., Muhsin Z., Nsour A., Alkhateeb F., AlMaghayreh E. , SE-learning Tools and Technologies in Education A Perspective, LINC 2010 Conference, 2010. N. H. Morteza Bashardoost, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Jurnal Teknologi, vol. 4, no. A NOVEL ZERO-WATERMARKING SCHEME FOR TEXT DOCUMENT AUTHENTICATION, pp. 46, 2015. K. F. Hau, Watermarking of Electronic Text Documents, Electron. Commer. Res. January 2002, Vol. 2, Issue 1-2, vol. 187, pp. 169187, 2002. 1hD4mHoMdszJ4KWH,J6 tYOmG2_ T)_NV0_sJ 5TuKyr A
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