Medieval Music English Research Mrs

Medieval Music
English Research
Mrs. Magda Atlas

Table of Contents
Introduction………………………………………………………….…….……Page 3
Style and Trends…………………………………………………………………Page 4
Instruments.………………………….…………………………………………Page 4
Instruments Continued…………………………………………………………Page 5
Instruments Continued…………………………………………………………Page 6
Genres …………………………………………………………………………Page 6
Genres Continued ………………………………………………………………Page 7
Conclusion…………………………………………….………………………Page 7
Work Cited………………………………………………………………….…Page 8
Mohamed Ibrahim
Mrs. Magdalena Atlas
English
19/11/2018
Introduction
Music is the technique of joining tones to shape expressive compositions. Through ages music has changed significantly. Different musical styles were used in each period, but many of the styles had a short effect at the time. Starting from the Medieval period (from 400-1500) until contemporary times(present). The effect of Medieval music is dramatical because it affected the authors during the Renaissance and through them present music. The term Medieval music includes European music written throughout the Middle Ages. The era starts at 400 C.E. when the Roman Empire fall down, and it finishes in the middle of the fifteenth century. Music was critical in the Medieval time because it was the only source to entertain all people of different ages. There was no radio or TV, so people made up fairy tales and created music to listen to them. People manufactured many instruments to use them to create music, and some of these instruments were very odd. At that time, the music that was high pitched and woodwind was the music of decision in Medieval period. Music at this era started to branch off at that point into different types of music. Medieval music wasn’t preformed except if there was an instrument to play on it. The spread of the Middle ages can be heard through its music.

Styles and Trends
The Medieval music that can be analyzed is what was written down and has remained. Making musical manuscripts in the middle ages was very expensive because the materials were expensive, and it takes time for the writer to copy it all, wealthy foundations are the only ones that can creates the manuscript and it remained until nowadays. These foundations were the church. Secular music and Sacred music were recorded by these foundations. Not all manuscripts that survived reflects the modern music. Toward the start of the Medieval period, the music that was presented is monophonic and homorhythm with what resembles as sung content and no recorded instrumental guide. “Earlier medieval notation had no way to specify rhythm, although neumatic notations gave clear phrasing ideas, and somewhat later notations indicated rhythmic modes.” The straightforwardness of the chant with a regular declamation and a harmony voice is generally common. The polyphony that was recorded has improved, and the presumption of that formalized polyphonic practices previously emerged in this era. Harmony is a constant range of complete fifths, octaves, begins to be recorded. “Rhythmic notation allows for complex interactions between multiple vocal lines in a repeatable fashion. The use of multiple texts and the notation of instrumental accompaniment developed by the end of the era.”
InstrumentsMusic in the Medieval period were created or performed by many different musical instruments. The instruments that were used to play Medieval music still exist but in different forms and structure and we still use them in the current days. There were three types of instruments that were the most popular at that time “Medieval period”. They were the string, wind, and percussion instruments. The string instruments had strings that were either plucked or struck with a bow. These instruments were the most widely recognized instruments and a big number of these instruments made it till nowadays. Wind instruments are instruments that you can blow inside them to let the air inside the instruments to vibrate to produce a specific sound.

Medieval plucked string instruments were like the modern guitar, for example, the lute and mandolin. The hammered dulcimer was similar in structure to the psaltery and zither, the instrument was not plucked a string it was struck. Another type of instrument was the “hurdy-gurdy”, it still exists in present with the same name. It is a mechanical violin utilizing a rosined wooden wheel connected to a crank to its string(bow). The instruments that are without sound boxes, for example, Jews harp, were also popular.
The Medieval “cornet” was a Medieval instrument that was made of ivory or wood. It differs from its modern advanced partner and it is the trumpet, is made of metal. It has been tweaked to be more consistent and better. Cornets in Medieval occasions were very short. They were either straight or fairly bent, and development just ended up institutionalized on a bent form by roughly the center of the fifteenth century. In one side, there would be a few gaps. Another common instrument that was used to perform Medieval music is the flute. The flute was made of wood, but in present, it is made of silver or other metal, and it could be made as a side-blown or end-blown instrument. One of the flutes ancestors is the “pan flute,” was well known in the Medieval occasions, and is possible of the Hellenic origin. These current instruments pipes were made of wood and were graduated long to deliver distinctive pitches. The recorder, then again, has pretty much held its past frame. The “gemshorn” is like the recorder in having finger openings on its front, however, it is extremely an individual from the ocarina family.

Percussion instruments were made of wood and animal skins most of the time it was made of the sheep or goat skin. It was played by beating the stretched skin with a small wooden stick or by one finger. Examples of percussion instruments are the triangle, the tambourine, and drums(present). The triangle is made of silver, it is played by hitting one of the three sides by a silver stick or another type of metal to produce the pitch. Drums in the Medieval period were made of animal skin, wood, and clay, now in present, it is made of metal. The animal skin is stretched around the wood in a circular motion and using the clay to hold it in place, the same thing in the modern drum the difference is they are using a specific type of plastic paper instead of animal skin.

Genres
Two different groups of song, one sacred (religious) and the other secular(worldly), proposed one next to the other during the Medieval period. The sacred repertory, known as plainchant (Gregorian chant). It was created for ceremonies and it served or worship service of the western Christian church. Sacred music was basically the musical prayer or praise, the reverential words increased through song and beat. Nonsacred music referred to in this period as “Secular” monody. At that time, there were to kinds of secular music: courtly and elite or popular and traditional. The two sorts were expected essentially for entertainment or for communicating feelings. like songs of all ages, these offered the voice to the festival of heroes, the expression of protest and especially the pain and pleasure of love. Every one of the three repertories, one sacred and two seculars, were basically monophonic, despite the fact that for secular song instrumental accompaniments were most likely adlibbed, particularly for dancing, marching, exhorting to battle, and etc. Each one of the three was originated in oral societies, and their writings and songs were at first performed from memory and it is passed on by older singers or created by new poet-composers. Chants and courtly songs were transferred in this way through centuries before they start writing the text down in details on advanced documentation to maintain the music for future generations. For many people, music was absolutely aural, and most of the secular and nonliturgical music they heard, sang, and played has vanished.

Conclusion
The Medieval and contemporary time periods appear in two different cultural, religious, and psychological views. We can see examples of this variety through music. These cultural, religious, and psychological views affected where and how the music was played, and we can see a similar pattern happening in the present music. The people at that time used music to reflect their personalities, what they feel, what they think of, and many other things. Music reflected many things during the medieval period and also the current times. Another thing that appears in modern music is the Medieval instruments. Medieval and modern music are very similar in instruments. Contemporary music using the same instruments that were made in the Medieval period but in advanced structure. They didn’t take every instrument that was created, but they took the most popular and played ones in Medieval media, and the ones that would help make the music better.

Work Cited
“Chapter 2: Chant and Secular Song in the Middle Ages.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Romantic Age: Introduction, www.wwnorton.com/college/music/hanning3/outlines/ch02.htm.

“Interactive Review of Medieval Music.” Course Descriptions | Integrative Holistic Health and Wellness | Western Michigan University, wmich.edu/musicgradexamprep/MedievalChartIndex.html.

“Medieval Music.” Ohio River – New World Encyclopedia, New World Encyclopedia, www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Medieval_Music#Early_chant_traditions.

“Music for the Listeners.” Chapter 13: The Late 20th Century and American Music, www.musicforthelistener.org/unit2/chapter4.php.

“The Middle Ages — Arts & Entertainment: Medieval Music.” Annenberg Learner, www.learner.org/interactives/middleages/moremusic.html.

“Twentieth Century and Contemporary Music.” San Francisco Symphony – Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 3, www.sfsymphony.org/Watch-Listen-Learn/Read-Program-Notes/Music-Then-and-Now-Twentieth-Century-and-Contempor.