London College of Business Sciences
Diploma in Education and Training (DET)
Pearson BTEC Level 5
Unit 1: Developing Teaching, Learning and Assessment in Education and Training.
IQA Name: DR Zachariah M Mulenga
Analyse the application of pedagogical principles in own area. (4/5)
Evaluate the effectiveness of use of creative and innovative approaches in own area of specialism… (Page 6)
2.1 Use initial and diagnostic assessments to agree learner’s individual goals and learning preferences….(Page 7,8)
2.2 Devise a scheme of work taking account of:
The needs of learners
The delivery models
Internal and external requirements….(Page 9)
2.3 Design teaching and learning plans that take account of:
The individual goals, needs, and learning preferences of all learners.
Curriculum requirements….(Page 10,11)
2.4 Identify opportunities for learners and others to provide feedback to inform inclusive practice…(Page 12,13)
2.5 Explain how own practice in planning inclusive teaching and learning has taken account of theories, principles and models of learning, communication and assessment…(Page14,15)
3.1 Analyse theories of behaviour management….(Page 16,17)
3.2 Establish and sustain a Safe, Inclusive Learning Environment….(Page 18,19)
3.3 Explain how own practice in creating and maintaining a safe, inclusive teaching and learning environment has taken account of theories of behaviour management….(Page 20,21)
4.1 Design resources that:
Actively promote equality and value diversity.
Meet the identified needs of specific learners…(Page 22,23)
4.2 Demonstrate flexibility and adaptability in the use of inclusive teaching and learning approaches and resources, including technologies, to meet the needs of individual learners…(Page 24.25)
4.3 Demonstrate ways to promote equality and value diversity in own teaching…(Page 26/27)
4.4 Communicate with learners, learning professionals and others to meet individual learning needs and encourage progression… (Page 27,28)
4.5 Explain how own delivery of inclusive teaching and learning has taken account of theories, principles and models of learning and communication…(Page 29,30)
5.1 Design assessments that meet the individual needs of learners…(Page 30/31)
5.2 Demonstrate flexibility and adaptability in using types and methods of assessment to meet individual learning needs and assessment requirements…(Page 32)
5.3 Demonstrate the use of assessment data in:
Monitoring learner’s achievement, attainment and progress.
Setting learners targets.
Planning subsequent session.
Recording the outcomes of assessment…(Page 33)
5.4 Communicate assessment information to other professionals with an interest in learner achievement….(Page 34.35)
5.5 Explain how own assessment practice has taken account of theories, models and principles of assessment…Page 36)
6.1 Analyse ways in which minimum core elements can be demonstrated in planning, delivering and assessing inclusive teaching and learning.(37/38)
6.2 Apply minimum core elements in planning, delivering and assessing inclusive teaching and learning…(Page 38/39)
7.1 Use theories and models of reflection to evaluate the effectiveness of own practice in planning, delivering and assessing inclusive teaching and learning…(Page 40/41)
7.2 Analyse ways to improve own practice in planning, delivering and assessing inclusive teaching and learning…(Page 41/42)
References… (Page 43/44)
Analyse the application of pedagogical principles in own area.
“Pedagogy is an encompassing term concerned with what a teacher does to influence learning in others.” Child Australia (2018) The pedagogical term in education and training means it is teacher centred, for example how a teacher teaches their students, how their own teaching occurs and how teaching is approached. It is essential for teachers to motivate and approach learners, as learners are dependent on their teachers for learning. It is essential teachers are delicate when approaching students learning, as learning is a fundamental factor to succeeding a subject. Some approaches teachers use in classrooms are case-base, case-study, group work and Q and A etc. When students have learnt all necessary information, they start to become independent from their teachers and can-do learning by themselves, this is known as Andragogy e.g. a teacher may set a problem-solving task but would still be in the room to guide the students if help was needed.
Multi- sensory models: Multi-sensory stimulation is essential as this is when learners can use their senses as part of their learning. Students who have hearing impairment, additional needs, and other impairments can benefit from multisensory approaches. This is because multi-sensory uses the senses as a learning technique to learn, so students with disabilities can learn with their peers. “Multisensory instruction gives kids more than one way to make connections and learn concepts.” Morin, A (2014-2018) When learner’s senses are stimulated, a better learning will take place in classroom, as the senses are used to explore learning rather than take in information straight to their minds. Teachers can stimulate learners through visual presentation, level of volume in videos and variety of colours etc. Furthermore, teachers have a better understanding of lesson plans which will help plan stimulate the senses with consistent reflection, assessment and observations. I believe this is a great technique for additional needs students and learners with different styles of learning, it brings the whole classroom together as the teacher is adapting to each and every one of the individuals.
Experiential learning: “Professor D.A. Kolb is the person most associated with experiential learning theory and said: “knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience and transforming it.” Growth Engineering (2017) Kolb’s research shows us that knowing how to apply a skill is an on-going process of one’s experience as they can reflect on it and continue to use it. Below is the experimental learning cycle which comes with four elements:
These four elements add up to the “experiential learning cycle” as each of these show a relationship between each element, For example:
Experience: Coming out of one’s comfort zone and experiencing new skills.
Reflection: Reflecting on these skills/experiences and learning the outcome of their new experience.
Conceptualise: Understanding the wrongs and rights and what can be done differently for next time.
Experiment: Testing our ideas from our experiences and reflection.
I agree with experimental learning as I believe most of our knowledge comes from being active and experiencing new things. This works in favour for those who are kinaesthetic learners as they learn from body movements. Many students of mine are kinetic learners and engage well when learning is shown to them.
Scaffolded Learning: The term “scaffolded Learning” in education means the use of instructions to students so they can progress onto a stronger understanding and independence for themselves. For example teachers give students a brief moment of support (support which helps students aim higher), this is because teachers know some students may not be able to aim high without some assistance, therefore teacher will assist a students as much as they can and then gradually move away from a student, so they can have a responsibility in their learning, this is also known as “student-centred”. In my placement, I implement this model to students by presenting all the necessary information first and I will ask questions in between the slides and once I know students have some understanding I set an activity which they do by themselves, while I sit back and observe each student. The students know I am still available for help, but I encourage them to do activities for themselves as much as they can.
Evaluate the effectiveness of use of creative and innovative approaches in own area of specialism.
Different approaches taken to help learning become effective is essential as this is when students learning becoming fascinating instead of having the same routine of slides, test and assignments. Many approaches such as blended learning, supported independent study, activity-based learning, extensions activities and many more are very effective to use in education and training.
Blended Learning: I ensure my approach of teaching meets the needs of students, which helps them to learn and become knowledgeable, for example I use “blended learning”. “Blended approaches use multiple methods to deliver learning, combining face-to-face interactions with online activities.” Higher Education Academy (2015). My mentor introduced this approach to me, and I believe it worked very well for me as a student teacher because of the different approaches, it kept learners engaged in the session, which gave me confidence to handle the classroom effectively by myself. Students are likely to get bored after 20 minutes of their teacher speaking, with blended learning, it allows the teacher to get their lecture out the way in a short amount of time, then it allows students to do variety of activities such as Q and A question online and watch information videos etc. There is also use of PowerPoint for a training session, written quizzes, small group discussions and role plays at various points in the approach. Students who may have missed lessons, can always catch up at home, I give my students a login, so they can catch up at home and find out what was learnt in the classroom. I believe this approach helps all learners, as every learner, learns in a different style. With blended learning the teacher is constantly changing their approaches to suit the needs of learners. When students learn the way they find easier, learning becomes relaxed for them. However, if a teacher just did one approach in an effective way it would be moderate but still not effective as other students may not understand completely. For example, if a teacher just used slide shows to cover the lesson, it is only meeting the needs of visual learners, but with blended learning it meets the needs of visual, kinetic and auditory learners.
Activity-based learning: This technique is student centred and is implemented by teachers to accentuate their method of teaching through activities, which students participate in and to bring effective learning experience. Using this technique students are involved physically and mentally. Pine G (1989) mentions that “in an activity-based teaching, learners willingly with enthusiasm internalize and implement concepts relevant to their needs.” Activity-based learning is effective as it gives students a sense of reality of learning, builds confidence and understanding, makes use of each resources available and helps a content relationship between student and teacher.
Supported Independent Study: Independent study is when a student can contemplate, perform and follow their own studies separately from the teacher. For example, students need to be able to do research on a computer instead of expecting teachers to give the answers to them. However, it is not wrong for a teacher to step in and support their students if they see they are struggling. Teachers should approach this task gently and fairly, so students are able to think for themselves and become independent from their teachers. It would not be effective if teachers did all the work for students, as no knowledge would have been gained. Furthermore, spoon feeding students is not beneficial as when they go out in the real world, things will not be done for them, therefore they should acquire skills of researching, asking for help etc now while their teacher is still building up their confidence and skills.
2.1 Use initial and diagnostic assessments to agree learner’s individual goals and learning preferences.
All methods of assessment involve observation, evaluation and questioning. The most common assessment used in education is initial and diagnostic. Initial Assessment is done in the beginning of learning, providing relevant information that is needed, enabling the learner to progress and measure achievements. There are various forms of initial assessments including interviews, application forms and relevant tests. Diagnostic Assessment “Diagnostic assessment are related to specific skills –they provide a baseline to facilitate teachers with the relevant knowledge to gauge an individual’s strengths or weaknesses.” T, Lynnx (2013) The information gathered from doing the diagnostic assessment is then included into individual learning plans, so that when teachers are planning for students it can be addressed correctly. For instance, there was a student who struggled to read and write, the student didn’t tell me she had dyslexia, I gathered from her literacy skills. I asked my mentor if we could do a diagnostic assessment on her as I was worried she had dyslexia and I wanted to enable support as soon as possible. After doing the assessment, she was diagnosed with dyslexia. We had a team meeting with the student, who said she knew she had dyslexia but was to afraid to seek help. We reassured her that having dyslexia is nothing to be worried about, and then we came up with some long-term goals, so we could measure her progress. The students goal was to finish her assignments before the academic year finishes, so we proposed one to ones after college and a teacher would give feedback on her assignment during class, where she can make amendments with the teacher present.
Short term- Long term goals: From a student’s diagnostic assessment, as mentioned before a meeting was arranged. The student had informed us that she is dyslexic but was very insecure about it. She expressed her preference to learning, which is to hear and see pictures and she would like to take her functional skills again. We thought this was a great idea, because she came up with her own goals and wanted to further her learning more by re-taking her functional skills. So, we created targets she came up with in her learning plan, which she must achieve by the end of term with the help of us. With her having the extra help of re taking her functional skills, will create opportunities for her as she is learning in her own time and can take in what she learnt from those lessons and implement techniques to our lessons. We informed her other teacher that she was dyslexic and that she would need extra help/resources to progress and succeed.
SWOT ANALYSIS: “SWOT analysis is an analytical method, which is used to identify and categorise significant internal factors (i.e. strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (i.e. opportunities and threats) an organisation faces.” European Commission (2005-7).
The SWOT analysis delivers information that is collected and is useful in corresponding the organisations funds and abilities to viable setting’s, it then allows one organisation to function and proceed. Subsequently, a significant influence on the strategic planning process.
The SWOT analysis reflection and evaluation analysis:
Strength: what were the advantages.
Weaknesses: what could be avoided next time, what could be put in to make it better.
Opportunities: what good opportunities are obtainable for one.
Threats: what obstacles are in place to a student learning, are schools/colleges finically supported to bring in extra resources needed.
With SWOT analysis it helps show teachers a student’s weakness and strength and see the situation of ones learning in a holistic way. It could also be used on teachers to understand their own weaknesses and improvements. When this is done, it gives teachers confidence to help those who are not progressing. Teachers can help students in terms of planning, stimulating their student and help reach their goals. Additionally, when teachers look at a students initial/diagnostic assessment, they can speak with their students individually or take a questionnaire to help understand the areas of improvements.
2.2 Devise a scheme of work taking account of:
The needs of learners
The delivery models
Internal and external requirements.
When devising a scheme of work by a teacher, a teacher must consider each and every one of learners needs. For example, is it inclusive towards each individual if not how can I make the scheme of work tend to those needs. Also, the delivery of a teacher is a significant act as it is the teacher’s responsibility to engage all learners in their lesson, if students are not engaged they are not likely to gain knowledge. Lastly considering of external and internal requirements is essential as for instance external resources maybe needed for the lesson so it can help an individual understand the same as their peers. “A scheme of work is a plan that defines work to be done in the classroom. Involving learners in defining a scheme of work, whether for a short project or a long course, is an important step towards motivation and involvement.” British Council (2018)
In my college placement, I have devised a scheme of work for my students who are retaking their maths and English. most of the students who are retaking their functional skills are those who come from another country and would like to gain a basic knowledge in their maths and English, other students are middle aged students who find it a bit harder to learn as retaking their maths and English is a new role to them which they need help adjusting too. The scheme of work I have devised considers of those who need extra help, such resources are available on. From this experience I have learnt that tending to those who are weaker than the rest (in terms of learning) need a more diverse style of teaching. Showing them their ability of what type of learner they are, shows them how important it is to recognise how they learn, as this is the best and easiest way for them to learn. Once they recognise their abilities it is much easier for them to understand and boosts their confidence. For example, I had a student who could not learn from looking at words and slides, but rather learn through my tone of voice and body language, hence why I mentioned a teacher should offer a diverse teaching style as it would suit the needs of all learner. Another student had said by presenting verities of slides and visuals helped them understand the lesson better. Which is why in my opinion “blended learning” is the best approach as it covers all aspect of delivery model, learners needs and requirements. “Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning with online learning, in which students can, in part, control the time, pace, and place of their learning.” Tucker. R. C (2013)
“Internal quality assurance (IQA) relates to the monitoring of all the teaching, learning and assessment activities which learners will undertake. The activities should form part of an organisation’s overall quality assurance system.” Gravvells, A (2018) IQA observes the whole course progression from when a learner begins to when they are finish for example monitoring a learners full learning journey.
2.3 Design teaching and learning plans that take account of:
The individual goals, needs, and learning preferences of all learners.
Every child between the ages of five to sixteen is required to go to school and is entitled to free education. Students aged sixteen to nineteen can either go into apprenterships or continue their education in colleges to require a qualification in their chosen subjects. Every school and colleges are expected to follow the National Curriculum. The aim of The National Curriculum is “The national curriculum provides pupils with an introduction to the essential knowledge that they need to be educated citizens. It introduces pupils to the best that has been thought and said; and helps engender an appreciation of human creativity and achievement.” Department for Education (2014) All teachers are expected to follow the National Curriculum and include it within their teaching and learning plans, as the curriculum plans out for students learning experience and knowledge.
Individual needs and curriculum requirements
Learner- Centred: Learner -centred is known as a method used by teachers who gradually move the attention of instructions from teacher to student. The method aims to promote independency and develop learner autonomy by placing responsibility of learning to students. Learner-centred enables skills e.g. problem solving which can be used in lifelong learning. “A learner-centred approach to education requires instruction to be strategically designed to meet students’ individual developmental needs and interests. As such, students are active participants in constructing their learning with unlimited potential.” A Transformational Vision for Education in the US (2015). It takes account of all learner’s preferences, needs and learning as it is believed learner-centred recognises a student’s interest. For example, how a student learns? What do students like to learn? What are their preferences? Learner-centred is a contrast of teacher-centred. Teacher centred is when the teacher takes lead and the student become more independent on teachers for their learning. Teachers also choose what the students will learn, how they will learn and how students will be address in learning. To take account of learners needs, learner-centred is the best way to acknowledge individual’s preferences and to see which students requires a teacher centred approach.
Self-directed study/ Developing study skills: “Unlike schools, which usually give set tasks and homework assignments, Universities often rely on students to build their knowledge themselves, through self-directed study.” UniLife (2018) with independent studies, there is still some teacher supervision but is quite limited as students are expected to do and pass for themselves. Although the quote from UniLife states schools do not do self-directed study, this is true, however 16-year-old students who are taking their exams are given study leave to concentrate on revising for their exams. It is a vital and pressured time for young students as taking their GCSE’s is part of the curriculum requirements, meaning it is mandatory for them to take. Having this time apart from school develops study skills, where students can take the time to study their preferred way. Schools are still open for students to come in and have group study sessions for those who prefer to work with others.
Minimum core embedding: Every teacher must have knowledge of maths, English, language and ICT, these are known as the minimum core embedding. By being able to demonstrate and apply these skills teachers can help their students reach different skills. however, it is not just teachers that must know minimum core embedding as they can apply to anyone in any working field. Students usually know what career path they would like to choose, therefore by knowing the minimum core embedding will really help students develop and progress.
Academic level: “Each qualification must have an associated academic level which aligns with the Frameworks for Higher Education Qualifications of UK Degree-Awarding Bodies (FHEQ) and the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area (FQ-EHEA)” UCL (2018) .Programmes and units must be established with guidance to the “Level Descriptors”. They label the depth of each level and sketch the academic skills and the amount of learner independence required to succeed a programme for each level. Below is the UK academic levels:
UCL Level FHEQ Level FQ-EHEA Level UG Year Equivalent
Basic/ Introductory Level 3 N/A –
First Level 4 Short cycle UG Year 1
Intermediate Level 5 Short cycle UG Year 2
Advanced Level 6 First cycle UG Year 3
Masters Level 7 Second cycle –
Doctoral Level 8 Third cycle 2.4 Identify opportunities for learners and others to provide feedback to inform inclusive practice.
Teachers can create great opportunities for learners when they receive feedback to each other, which informs inclusive practice, as a learner may tell their teacher their support needs and seek help from their teachers.
Engaging learners: It is essential to engage learners in their learning as much as possible, teachers should not discriminate or exclude any students, as every student has a right to learn. Teachers should find ways to find out information from their learners by taking observations, classroom feedback, speak about learner’s preferences etc. when teachers do not know their students, learners are more likely to become less engaged as a teacher may be teaching them a way they do not learn. “Research has demonstrated that engaging students in the learning process increases their attention and focus, motivates them to practice higher-level critical thinking skills and promotes meaningful learning experiences.” University of Washington (2018). Active learning is a way of engaging students as strategies include questioning, group discussions and other activities. When teachers are participating in active learning strategies, it helps them give feedback on students learning and teachers can also give efficient evaluation.
Informal 1×1: Informal learning is normally recognised as spontaneous and never organised, it also structured outside the curriculum. Having a one to one with students “helps students to become more reflective about their learning;” CAD Guidelines (2013). Informal one to one helps both teacher and student as with student’s feedback teachers can then evaluate their own practice, also it helps teachers to identify areas where a student is misunderstanding. When problems are identified early in the learning process there is more chances a student will succeed. Feedback about students works should be appropriate as feedback from teachers is what their learning progresses on and what inspires them to learn.
Feedback from others
Feedback opens opportunities for all learners as they become more skilled, intelligent and aware of how to succeed.
Report following observations: Teachers are normally observed by their managers and then given a score on a report, however long and consistent may depend on the manager. For instance, a manager may come into the classroom, and take a written observation of the teacher. The observation would include strength and weaknesses of the teachers practice. This would then be followed up by a report allowing the teachers to see what was written about them. The report would include what improvements need to make and what further training is available to help strengthen practice. I believe this allows a broader opportunity for learners as well as teachers, as lessons would be given back suitably, and gives more correct use of a stronger teaching role.
IQA: “IQA monitors the whole process from when a learner commences to when they finish i.e. the full learning journey. It can also take place prior to the learner commencing i.e. monitoring the application and interview process, to after they have left i.e. following up on progression.” Gravells, A (2018) IQA would monitor a student’s confidence which may have to be assessed by managers to give feedback to teachers on how to raise their confidence levels. The Internal Quality Assurance is followed by this diagram:
By following this cycle, teachers can identify every area of a student, where as an observation would be this same but would not go into depth about a student learning as this cycle. The cycle continues to implement consistent monitoring and improvement if required. Teachers standards of practice amongst the internal quality assurers should take place, as this then helps implement consistency and fair and inclusive decisions, feedback from learners should also be given to and others who are involved in the assessment process.
2.5 Explain how own practice in planning inclusive teaching and learning has taken account of theories, principles and models of learning, communication and assessment.
Learning (Multi-sensory): “Multisensory techniques are frequently used for children with learning differences.” Lexicon Reading Centre (2017). Multisensory technique stimulates students by allowing them to use some/all their senses, it encourages students on many levels. For example,
Problem solving task.
Taking in information.
Linking information to what students learned.
Learning of different skills.
Students with additional needs would benefit from the multi-sensory techniques, as it enables them to recognise their areas of weaknesses, which then helps them to learn. This then leads to students becoming active in their learning. Active learning put students in the centre of learning experience, as it enables them to become much more involved within their own learning. Active learning benefits teachers too, with teachers it provides opportunities to interact with their students in depth. From my experience, I have seen active learning take place, and from what I have observed. Students become confident, it gives students “thinking time”, and brings the students together as one classroom. For me it is important that every student participate and are included in all activities/lessons. With active learning, it can be done in small or large groups. So, the students who are not confident and outspoken have a chance to interact in smaller groups, and with time it will bring out confidence to work in larger groups.
Communication (Recognising and addressing barriers): Communication comes in different forms of sending and receiving message. These include, verbally, technology use via email and body language etc. Communication plays a vital role in education and teaching today as it helps students and teachers interact. Being effective in communication allows us to understand each other whether it is done by feelings, opinions or concepts. I do this by knowing how to interact with students, as it is a principle of communication. I noticed a student who recently came to the UK, she could understand what we were saying but she could not communicate well, she also found it hard to write in English. I spoke to my mentor on how we can help this student, we both suggested that I sit with her during lesson time and help her through her assignment. We also referred her to do a functional skills test in both maths and English, so we could see what level she was at, and plan from there. Inclusive teaching and learning took place, as we recognised and addressed her barriers. If we did not acknowledge her barrier to learning, she would have no clue to what we were talking about during lessons, she wouldn’t know how to ask for help with her assignments and furthermore she wouldn’t be able to socialise with others or do group activities within the classroom. Which would result in her not being interested in the course and then failing. However, the student did address her concerns as she said she felt isolated from her peers by having me sitting next to her in every lesson, I asked if she would prefer after college support class, and she agreed.
Assessment (Achievable targets): In education, assessment means evaluating and measuring a student’s academic progress, skills and needs. Hence why it is essential for schools/colleges to do one on students. There are a variety of assessments, these are formative, summative, diagnostic and evaluative assessments. Each of these assessments are used for a different reason, for example if a teacher has concerns that a student has additional needs, they would do a diagnostic assessment. So, they would diagnose the student with the correct diagnosis, and then start planning accordingly for their own specific needs. A summative assessment is done at the end of learning to see student’s overall achievement. In my placement, we do summative assessment on students every term time. We have a one to one with students where they come up with their own achievable targets and tell us how we can help them. Having achievable target is essential as students know what they would like to accomplish, hence why it would be more realistic having the student come up with their own achievable targets. We as teachers are expected to help each student reach these targets regardless of their needs. Every learner can succeed with the help of their teachers. “By knowing what they want to achieve, they know what they have to concentrate on and improve. Goal setting gives students long-term vision and short-term motivation.” Teaching Community (2018)
3.1 Analyse theories of behaviour management.
Factors (Previous Experience): Sometimes teachers may find it hard to manage behaviour as a students may have additional needs, new teachers may not have experience in this field, so they would need to access extra support such as a teaching assistant having one to one in lesson, to help balance the class and ensuring those students with additional needs are receiving the same learning as everyone else. However, if a new teacher did want to deal with a classroom behaviour is a professional way, they would start with speaking about the rules, boundaries and consequences. “The majority of students in our schools behave well. They understand the behaviour expected of them by their teachers and generally act responsibly.” Department for education (2018) Students with additional needs may sometimes vent out of anger in the classroom, which leads to a disruptive lesson to other students who want to learn. It is important for teachers to have experience in this field as it is the teacher’s responsibility to lead an effective lesson to all. However new teachers may not, so they would need to speak with their managers to gain some support when dealing with such students.
Group Behaviour (Tuckman’s group formation): When setting group activities, it is important to size them appropriately. As teachers do not want to start a disruptive session. For example, all the “loud” students may want to work together as they are known socially together, which would lead to them not doing the work and becoming disruptive as they are amongst their friends. It is better for teachers to choose the groups as teachers know their student’s capabilities. Teachers would group individuals where there are mixed capabilities, so students can learn from each other. Furthermore, it includes everyone in the activity as the “quite” students may feel shy presenting in front of the classroom, so when it is there turning to speak they may shy away from their students. however big group sized could be done in classroom if teachers monitor closely. For instance, a classroom debate, the classroom would be divided into two, but it is the teacher’s role to ensure to disruptive behaviour is taking place. When doing group activities, it is essential the teacher is there always, as students may take advantage and end up being disruptive which would cause no outcomes for the lesson. One group development theorist named Bruce W Tuckman had four stages which helps group work together. The four stages are:
Forming: e.g. group organisations, having roles on whose doing what.
Storming: conflicts between teams, as some students may push boundaries.
Norming: students move away from stage 2, the group understand each other and can appreciate different skills.
Performing: presenting what they came up with as a group.
“Tuckman described the four distinct stages that a group can as it comes together and starts to operate. ” Chimaera Consulted Limited (2001). This means this approach can help groups work effectively without any interruptions.
Management through Motivation (Maslow): Maslow believed everyone has the potential to become the best they can be, however to become the best one must reach the top of his pyramid. Maslow is well known for his hierarchy of needs; the pyramid has 5 levels.
love and belonging
Student must be motivated in their lesson, whether it’s through their teachers or having something to eat so they can focus better. Maslow’s theory is used in classrooms today, as we tend to student’s physiological need by having access to water fountains. Teachers raise motivation through praises and feedback, which pushes the student to learn more. However, if teachers did not give any motivation to students, students would feel no love and belonging as they would think their teachers do not care about them, which would then affect them physiologically and result in poor self-esteem. This could lead to some students not attending lessons and affecting their attendance.
With maslows hierarchy of needs, it shows us that when we start from the bottom and work our way to the top of the pyramid with each student, it allows everyone’s basics needs to be tended to, thus leading an inclusive practice.
3.2 Establish and sustain a Safe, Inclusive Learning Environment.
Before exposing students to the physical environment, it is essential that it is safe and promotes inclusive learning to everyone. Physical activities can take place indoors or outdoors, teachers must ensure both areas are in a safe place and away from harm. There are many things a teacher can do to ensure the safety of their students. some students may not be able to participate in physical activities dues to asthma attacks or a physical need. It is important for teachers to not push them to do these activities as it may trigger harm to the individual. However just because they have a health issue does not mean they have to be excluded from the activities, teachers can use a mixture of physical activities which doesn’t include harming the health of a student. “PE helps pupils develop personally and socially. They work as individuals, in groups and in teams, developing concepts of fairness and of personal and social responsibility. They take on different roles and responsibilities, including leadership, coaching and officiating. Through the range of experiences that PE offers, they learn how to be effective in competitive, creative and challenging situations.” National Curriculum, QCA, 2009
Equipment checks/Risk Assessment: Risk Assessment is fundamental key to ensuring safety within organisations. “A risk assessment is a systematic examination of a task, job or process that you carry out at work for the purpose of identifying the significant hazards, the risk of someone being harmed and deciding what further control measures you must take to reduce the risk to an acceptable level.” Murphy, J (2016) It is also known as a legal requirement and must be conducted before a service user intends to use a certain equipment. Usually when a risk assessment is carried out, they ensure the full safety of an equipment, this then minimises the risk of harm, accidents and danger. When teachers carry out risk assessments and equipment check within their classroom. They must ensure all electric sockets are covered, each computer is well and working, no gas leaks and ensure full access to fire exit etc. By doing this, teachers sustain a safe environment by being alert of any broken equipment’s.
Ventilation: Having a good ventilation is essential as it stops condensation and controls contamination. Condensation leads to damp environment which can then cause difficulties in breathing for those who have asthma. “Indoor air pollution coupled with bad ventilation can lead to a number of health problems including headaches, allergies, asthma, rashes and sinusitis.” Climate Solution (2018). Contamination brings in bacteria, impurities and humidity. Which could trigger an asthma attack for those students who have asthma. Ventilation reduces high temperatures to a cool temperature as natural air can come into the room, allowing students to be able to work more comfortably and productively. A good ventilation system is essential in school settings as we do not want to affect our student’s physical health and cause risks.
Students learning environment must be safe and inclusive, their learning must be strongly taken into consideration as their progression leads an impact on educational setting and it becomes the teacher’s responsibility for shaping their students.
Actively engaging: Different teaching methods must be implemented into learning as it engages with all learner. For instance, auditory learners would rather hear their learning be explained rather than the use of slideshow, however visual learners prefer the use of colour and sight techniques to help them learn. Therefore, it is essential teachers actively engage with all students learning need as it promotes inclusive practice. Different approaches such as case-based activities help students develop skills in which they can use in their lifetime. “Case-based problem solving exercises – these types of exercises help students develop analytical skills and learn how to apply academic theories to real-world problems. Use case studies in a lecture and have students work out their solutions independently or in small groups or use case studies as the basis for major projects or exams.” Stanford university (2018)
Action against Discrimination: When a teacher see’s bullying in the classroom, it is their duty to act upon it. Discrimination cannot be allowed to take place anywhere, therefore teachers must stop it from taking place within classrooms. If teachers did allow it, they automatically create an unsafe and racist environment for all individuals. Furthermore, teachers are role models, so if they allow discrimination to happen, students would think it’s ok to discriminate elsewhere. Teachers must never ignore discrimination taking place as it does not promote safety or inclusive environment for learners. Teachers should tell students the consequences of bullying and have posters around colleges/classrooms to remind students how bullying makes others feel, they should also get students to tell teachers if they are being bullied.
3.3 Explain how own practice in creating and maintaining a safe, inclusive teaching and learning environment has taken account of theories of behaviour management.
Albert Bandura (1997): Bandura, A developed “the social learning theory” which is based on personality. “Social Learning Theory (Albert Bandura) The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes the importance of observing and modelling the behaviours, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others.” Cullata, R (2015) He believed people learnt from one another through observations, role modelling and stimulation. He had four principles which were attention, retention, reproduction and motivation. I use these four principles as an act of reinforcements to manage behaviour in my classroom.
Mixing skills and abilities: by having groups works, teachers must consider students characteristics and their skills and abilities. It would not be fair if teachers placed a group with stronger abilities together and those who have weaker abilities together as the weaker ability group would require more help and would not learn much from each other. When teachers mix skills and abilities it gives students a chance to learn from each other. However, some teachers may think they are being inclusive by placing stronger and weaker groups apart, when in fact they are delaying those with weaker abilities learning. “All children should be taught in mixed-ability classes to boost standards and self-esteem among all students,” Paton, G (2009) when students work together regardless of whose strong and weak, they tend to add a positive impact, also placing them apart would mean teachers are labelling students, which would cause low self esteem as the students would know their peers are not performing as well as they should be. Which is why Bandura, A had motivated as part of his four principles. Teachers should aim to create a safe, loving and inclusive environment for their students, not one where they are being embarrassed.
Respect and valuing each other: Respecting each other and valuing each other regardless of a person personal belief and preferences, should be implemented in educational settings. Teachers and students should not allow discrimination to ever take place in their setting as it would be considered unprofessional for teachers and bullying for students. if teachers do come across such behaviours, steps should be taken to ensure the individual feels safe and consequences are made to those who are bullying. It is also considered unfair if teachers do not teach the way a student learns best. E.g. I have a student who is blind, I respected and valued her by providing her with resources such as brail, an extra teacher and changing my tone when I am teaching her, I do this because I want to keep her engaged in the lesson as the best I could. I have found that by changing instructions and resources to accommodate the specific needs of individual Learners can benefit the whole class. Moreover, I incorporate inclusive practice which meets everyone’s needs, therefore creating a safe space for the blind student.
Skills development: Every student can become the best they can be, it is a teacher’s duty to help students reach their potentials by helping them develop a variety of skills. Skill development leads to success which is why I use skill-based learning as it is linked with the curriculum. “To become skills-based we flip it. Our curricula describe a progression of skills and the knowledge we select, upon which we bring these skills to bear, is secondary.” Fleetham, M (2009) Having a set of skills is an important part of education as it plays a big part after we finish education. Being able to develop skills is considered vital and known as surviving technique. In terms of education having simple mathematic and English skills is a great skill to have as most of our work is done by these two sectors. Teachers who see students who are not developing skills must aim to help these students and find out what barriers is stopping them from developing. Teachers must set to help all students and not those who are capable, those who have additional needs are just as capable as those who don’t have additional needs. They need set plans in place and resources which will make skill development easier for them to learn. Not helping students will cause either an outrageous behaviour or a lazy behaviour. Two things a teacher should avoid when dealing with students. bandura, a did mention “attention” in his principles, as attention is what students crave from teachers, if teachers are not giving it the classroom may become disruptive.
Positive reinforcement: Means receiving a reward for a good act or good behaviour. This act is commonly used in teaching and learning as it manages the behaviour of students. However, University of Kansas states “Many teachers do not believe in positive reinforcement because they do not want to reward students for just doing what is expected.” However, I believe this is a good way to balance out classroom behaviours and build relationship with students. furthermore, students with additional needs may not recognise what good behaviour is so teachers would need to model to them rather than just expect it from them. On the other hand, teachers may get difficult students with ADHD or Autism which may lead to them being disruptive in classroom, if teachers do not show these students positive reinforcement and constantly using negative it would have a great impact on those students as they would not change their behaviour. Being able to manage an individual behaviour promotes inclusivity and a better learning environment for students who have difficulties to progress.
4.1 Design resources that:
Actively promote equality and value diversity.
Meet the identified needs of specific learners.
Equality means ensuring everyone is recognised and not treated differently to others because of their personal beliefs, characteristics and race etc. Diversity is recognising and respecting the different beliefs and cultures. It is vital for teachers to treat their students the same, create inclusive lessons, not tolerating bullying in the classroom and enabling all individual to reach their highest potential. There are many things, teachers can do that can help actively promote equality and diversity as well as being able to meet the identified need of specific learners.
Equality and Diversity
Supplementing auditory with visual and hands on: “we need to present information using all three styles. This allows all learners the opportunity to become involved, no matter what their preferred style may be.” Learning styles (2000) as each learner learns differently it is important for teachers to recognise the three learning preferences so they can adapt their teaching styles in various of ways. Some students cannot gain knowledge if they are not taught the way they learn, therefore leading to struggle of learning and understanding. However, a learner does have one dominant preference of learning, but they may require a mixture to complete a different task. So, with teachers adapting their styles of teaching helps learners recognised they may have more than one learning style. It is a teacher’s role that each of their students understand the lesson, if not teachers are not being practical in terms of being inclusive as their learning needs are dismissed.
Varied range of materials or tools for practical activities: “For many students with disabilities—and for many without—the key to success in the classroom lies in having appropriate adaptations, accommodations, and modifications made to the instruction and other classroom activities.” NICHCY (2017) adaptations may include making a wider space for wheel chair users to get around the classroom or having the classroom on the first floor as this is easy access for those in wheelchairs. Students with additional need require extra time and resources to help them get through an exam. It is important for teachers to allow this, as it is every disabled student right. Although this may seem unfair to those who are not allowed extra time, but it is important for teachers to teach their student that everyone’s brain works differently. As everyone’s cognitive state is different to others, it is important for teachers to implement varied of materials to those with additional needs to help them succeed.
Font type and size: Applying different resources into the classroom is important as these resources help learners grasped learning and meet the specific needs. For example, a visual impaired student would need the font to be bigger, or they may need light sensitive resources as their eyes are delicate to bright lighting. It is important for students to tell their teachers about their needs as it will help progress their learning as teachers can then start planning essentials towards their learning. Students with dyslexia may struggle to understand what the teacher has written as dyslexia is mainly a literacy barrier to learning. “One possible area of difference involves font style that has led to the development of specific fonts to help individuals with dyslexia.” Hoffmeister, S (2016) The use of font type and size will enhance the individual with dyslexia need as writing becomes clearer.
Use of alternative technologies: “Technology can help improve learning by enhancing digital communication to meet the needs of different learning styles of students.” Whittenberger, R (2013) The use of technology can be accessed inside and outside of classroom, these days teachers are assigning their students to do their homework online e.g. quizzes, lecture videos, online projects etc. One beneficial use of technology is that it meets the needs of learner’s styles, especially those who have physical and learning disabilities. To add to this, students who do not speak English can now go onto google translate and have google translate every word for them, which makes it easier for them to understand what the task is. Technology approaches gives opportunities for learning by using various of things to teach information. Students become more knowledgeable on how and where to access certain files. They know where to research etc, furthermore students can interact with technology at their own pace, develop IT skills etc. teachers today have much more resources to use to meet the diverse learning styles of students, as blended learning increases in classrooms, educational organisation are funded with much more technology resources, to give teachers the opportunities to help develop all their students skills, knowledge and outcomes.
4.2 Demonstrate flexibility and adaptability in the use of inclusive teaching and learning approaches and resources, including technologies, to meet the needs of individual learners.
To be inclusive, one must include everyone regardless of their gender, sexuality, race and other. It is unfair to dismiss and individual because of their personal preferences, it is also against the law as it follows the “Equality Act 2010” states: “The Equality Act 2010 legally protects people from discrimination in the workplace and in wider society.” UK Government (2013)Focus on learning rather than teaching: It is vital for teachers to understand that a students learning is far more important that the way a teacher teaches. This means, teachers should focus on important points of learning rather than trying to pace through their teaching. A teacher must ensure each student understand what the teacher is saying. For example, a student of mine found it hard to adapt to the English language, so my mentor arranged a 1 -1 with me in classrooms so she could understand the lesson. However, the student did dis-closed to one of her friend who speak fluent English that she feels insecure and feels like a child when she has a teaching assistant next to her. She said she was embarrassed that her peers knew she couldn’t understand the lesson. While me and my mentor thought 1-1 was a great idea, we didn’t really go into depth how the student would feel. So, we reflected and asked the student if she would like after college support group to help with her assignments, she agreed. It is important for teachers to protect a student’s dignity as much as they can as this is what builds the confidence to learn.
Engaging different learning styles: Teachers must engage all learners. It is important to recognise the three common learner styles, these are kinetic, visual and auditory learners. Each of these are known to be learn in a different style e.g. visual learner require their learning to be seen via slides and handouts. Sometimes students may two or all three to learn. Which is why it is essential for teachers to adapt their teaching styles to the way a learner learns or they will not learn anything at all.
Inclusiveness of resources
Extra resources is what helps a student learn, because a teachers words cannot help an individual alone as some require material to meet with their specific learning needs.
Use of Current and Accessible technology: As modern-day progresses, so does our technology. “Inclusive technologies may be designed to remediate specific difficulties and contain key supportive features, while others have many features that support a range of learning needs.” Spectronic (2018) it is essential for teachers to be as inclusive with their resources as they can be, as they would not want any students behind. Technology has become so advance that teachers should be taking advantage for student’s own benefit. For example, you can now convert text into an audio file, which is beneficial for students who are auditory learners. Students can also access this audio files at any time, so they can do home learning. Computers are in classrooms now, so students can research on further information to help them with their task/activities. Students can access their teacher’s classrooms notes by given a login by their teacher, so they can do home learning. This is great for students who have been absent from their lessons. Teachers can make lessons more engaging and motivational by doing PowerPoint presentation onto the board. Instead of having students listen to a lecture or learn from a book. Students can make use of technology in their classroom and combine technology into their learning. Presentation on the board is much better for visual and short-sighted learners as they have a better chance of seeing their learning in big and bold writing, and with the help of pictures.
Stimulating and Engaging: Multi-sensory is one way to stimulate and engage all learners as this is a way to use their senses as part of learning. The multi-sensory approach is very beneficial for students who are deaf or blind. When learner’s senses are stimulated, a better learning will take place in classroom. Teachers can stimulate learners through visual presentation, level of volume in videos and variety of colours etc. Furthermore, teachers have a better understanding of lesson plans which will help plan stimulate the senses with consistent reflection, assessment and observations.
4.3 Demonstrate ways to promote equality and value diversity in own teaching.
How to Promote Equality: Equality, is the knowledge of encouraging and accepting different people from different backgrounds, whether I t be their race, belief or sexuality, it is against the law and teaching standards to discriminate. “Equality is about ensuring individuals are treated fairly and equally, no matter their race, gender, age, disability, religion or sexual orientation.” Petty, L (2014). Promoting equality within educational setting is essential as it creates a safe equal environment where students can learn together, and where everyone is treated the same.
How to Value Diversity: As a teacher, it is imperative to acknowledge how one’s social character may affect their experience of learning. Discrimination can be done in many ways e.g. stereotyping, humiliating and assuming things of people. To ensure I value diversity and the differences between everyone’s backgrounds I start of by respecting all cultures and religions. For example, respecting Muslim females who choose to wear the scarf. I avoid stereo-typical judgments against others as I know I would not like others to make assumptions because of the way I look.
Flexible delivery models: Teachers must be able to have flexible delivery to student’s needs. Each students learns in a different way this could be done in a kinetic, visual or auditory style. “Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learning Styles (VAK) The VAK learning style uses the three main sensory receivers: Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic (movement) to determine the dominant learning style. It is sometimes known as VAKT (Visual, Auditory, Kinaesthetic, & Tactile).” VAK (2000). By teachers adapting to students learning needs, they promote and equal and diverse learning environment. As all students are being tend to and not just one specific group. Blended learning is a great technique I use to help suit the needs of learners as it covers all aspect on learning style. Those students who require extra support the teacher would need to place them in the classroom as blended learning my not be enough for them to learn. For example, a blind student would need brail writing.
Engage learners themselves to value diversity: I believe bringing diversity into the classroom is educating and personal for others to see. So recently we had a charity organisation to give money to a children’s hospice. I encouraged students to bring in their national dish to sell to raise money. All students were excited to try other country dishes as it was a new experience for them. I believe I help educate and promote a more loving manner towards other nationality. I always reflect on my actions to see if I have shown respect to students and taught inclusively meeting everyone’s needs. Furthermore there are posters inside and around the college promoting people of different ethnicity and colour. The reason for this is to promote equality and show learners they are all accepted within our college regardless of their backgrounds. We are also aware of students who prefer to be homosexual but do not want their peers to know about this, so we decided to put up posters behind toilet doors where they could confide or seek help from professions. This was done to protect student’s identity and their confidentiality. “Finally, confidentiality needs to be assured for families and students to seek neede92018d services without fear of retaliation, discrimination, prejudicial treatment, or stigmatization.” FERPA (2018)
Awareness of individual needs: Students with learning difficulties would require extra support, therefore their teacher would have to place support within classroom so those students do not feel isolated from the classroom. If a teacher did not tend to those needs then those students would not feel the same as their peers and would result in low self-esteem. Which is something to avoid as it the results would have a great impact on school reputation. It is crucial for teachers to be aware of individual needs as this is the recognition of their barrier to learning. Once a teacher knows their difficulties through diagnostic assessment, they are able to help them and guide them through learning. In my college placement each student has an individual learning plan, where all their targets and goals are recorded. It is kept strictly confidential and the student is aware of their goals. By having separate ILP’s for each students, gives them time to work on their weaknesses, therefore promoting equality and diversity as all student are being tended too in terms of reaching a goal.
4.4 Communicate with learners, learning professionals and others to meet individual learning needs and encourage progression.
It is essential for teachers to communicate with their learners and other learning professionals, as this gives teachers an insight on how they can meet the individual learning needs.
Learners forum: “The Learner Forum is the best opportunity for our learners to feed in their ideas about what the Institute is doing well, how we can improve and what new things we should be thinking about.” Redbridge Institute (2017) A learner’s forum provides students to make suggestion of changes to their organisation, share their experience/ideas, provide up to date information on new resources and services, etc.
With learners leading to action planning: Teachers are involved and have direct learning with students. Therefore, they would know best in decision making for learners needs. However, some teachers may not have the experience to help students further, so they would get in touch with other learning professionals. For example, a teacher may not know how to help an ADHD student who disrupts the lesson, by getting in touch with other learning professions would help a great deal. As other learning professionals have a deeper understanding on how to help individuals. Furthermore, they understand what the learner needs to further their education and create high standards. It is also ideal for learner to agree on an action plan for themselves as the specific goal would come from them which will motivate them to succeed.
Specialist Support Providers: Many learning professionals can become involved when meeting learning needs, such as careers advice, lead tutor, head of school, school counsellors etc. Each profession that comes into contact when meeting the individual learning needs must stimulate individuals to seek opportunities for themselves, but it is necessary to give students a head start so students know what they need to do for themselves. “inspire students to seek opportunities; co-ordinate tutorial activities and mentoring; reference writing” The Henley College (2018)
This is vital as some students may be insecure and may need that push from teachers to progress.
Identifying Learners Option: To encourage progression, a teacher’s role is to firstly identify individual’s needs. Teachers can identify by observing how a student learns and look through their work. If a teacher see’s a student is not progressing, they must act upon it instantly as they can find solutions to helping them progress. The ones who are progressing, a teacher must not ignore them, a teacher should challenge them, so they can acquire new skills, challenges and knowledge. When students’ progress, they can make options for themselves as to what course or work they would like to study, it gives them confidence to become independent and helps them become ambitious. When teachers do not help individual learning needs, student becomes insecure, less engage and withdrawn from everyone. Resulting in them failing their education, hence the reason why it is essential to encourage progression.
Communicating with parents: Also working in partnership with others such as parents gives value to parents, understanding to teachers and securement in accomplishment to learners needs. As teachers know their student’s abilities, they can help parents understand their child abilities, speak to them about home learning, and encourage parents to make referral outside the educational environment. By parents contributing in education enhances learning support and growth. Furthermore, some parents may not know how to help their child with learning needs, so by getting support from teachers would boost home learning and their child’s confidence and encourage progression.
Negotiating work placements: Encouraging students to gain experience in a chosen work field, is also encouraging progression. As work placements is what helps give individual experiences, develop new skills and a good reference for other jobs. Work experience also gives students the opportunity to progress further and sometimes work placement may give a student a job because they feel that student is suitable for the role.
4.5 Explain how own delivery of inclusive teaching and learning has taken account of theories, principles and models of learning and communication.
Responding to learner needs: “The good teacher communicates a deep regard for students’ lives, a regard infused with unblinking attention, respect, even awe. An engaged teacher begins with the belief that each student is unique, each the one and only who will ever trod the earth, each worthy of a certain reverence.” Ayres, Klonsky, ; Lyon, 2000, pp. 2–3. Responding to learner needs is an important part of teaching as it develops inclusive practice. Each student is unique therefore they have different needs. For example some learner may be visual or kinaeasthic learners. Visual learners would need to see their learning for them to learn and kinasetic would need roleplay/body language to learn. As I know all students learn differently, I ensure I plan my lessons catering to all individual needs. I do not focus on one student, I ensure I engage all students into my lessons and activities. Which is why I like to use the technique “blended learning”. Blended learning not only helps my students but also helps boosts my confidence as a student teacher. Within my lesson I ensure I add visual effects, I play short videos with useful information, I do group activities, so students learn from each other, and sometimes I’ll do a short test to recap on what the students have learnt. Different methods include: carrying out observations, interviews, questionnaires, creating job descriptions, appraisal reviews and holding problem solving conferences, giving the opportunity to gather needs analysis material from. Although identifying a learner learning needs is essential to helping us teach and be inclusive.
Embedding minimum core: “All teachers should have a knowledge and understanding of literacy, language, numeracy, and information and communication technology (ICT) skills.” Ann Gravells. However some students might find one or two subjects they struggle with, simply because they do not understand or they may have a learning difficulties. Teachers are expected to pick up anything from students work that may give them a clue if they have a learning difficulty. For example, a student may have poor literacy skills due to being dyslexic, a teacher would then do a diagnostic assessment and plan classroom activities from there. However a student may have poor ICT skills due to not understanding at all. It is a teacher’s responsibility to help these students in their weaknesses as part of inclusive practice.
Two way process: Communication should always be a two way thing, both persons should be able to express themselves without being interrupted or ignored. Two way communication is a healthy part of any relationship as it shows that the other person is heard and it provides the space needed for them to respond; if communication is only being carried out by one person then the result will not be effective as the listener may lose interest or become annoyed as they are not able to express their thoughts in the conversation. This does not show a strong relationship between teacher and student as it may show the student that the teacher is abusing their power to control the student instead of providing advice and support.
Empowering the learner: To empower a person, the positive aspects that they acquire must be recognised and uplifted, the negatives a person sees within themselves must be encouraged and celebrated; this is what it means to empower a person. “When students are empowered, learning becomes more relevant. Instead of just doing something as I’m told, I am able to learn things that are of interest and value to me. Teachers can help provide the context to expand and challenge the interests of students but not to make all the decisions for them.” Geruin, D (2016). This is important within the learning environment as individual’s need to be praised for them to be engaged and want to learn. If an individual is being critiqued constantly or a certain aspect of them that they have is brought up negatively, this will make them feel insecure and withdraw themselves from the learning. To empower a person shows equality as individuals’ can see they are receiving the same treatment as everyone else and will not feel targeted, discriminated or bullied. To empower a person shows diversity as everyone is different therefore will be praised for different things such as their ability to memorise, or their confidence with learning and interacting in class. This will show students the praise is authentic to them and the teacher respects the diversity they carry.
5.1 Design assessments that meet the individual needs of learners.
Formal learning is a type of learning which allows goals/objectives to be defined by the teacher, Formal learning is also known as structured learning. Formal assessments include exams and test, which are then graded by the teacher. Teachers then use this information collected from the test etc to meet the needs of individual learners. The assessments help sees which student is below average, and which student needs to be challenged to maximise their abilities.
Measure of knowledge: Assessments are known as a process of having documentation on a student and collecting data ion their knowledge, progress and skills. if a student is not progressing, teachers must find the cause of this and improve on the students learning. Assessments can be done in many forms such as examining a student works, teachers would measure the knowledge a student has, simply by assessing their work. If they have any concerns or notice a student may have additional needs, they would do further assessments such as a diagnostic assessment or speak with their colleges SEN team to meet the individual needs of learners.
Gauge skills level: “Assessment is at the heart of education: Teachers and parents use test scores to gauge a student’s academic strengths and weaknesses, communities rely on these scores to judge the quality of their educational system, and state and federal lawmakers use these same metrics to determine whether public schools are up to scratch.” Edutopia (2015) it is important to see where student’s skills are, as skills is an essential tool for lifelong learning. Some skills can be used in education e.g. problem solving in maths. However, if a teacher comes across students with additional needs it is most important to consider that their additional need is not a barrier to their learning, rather it is a teacher’s responsibility to help all their students. teachers must consider extra resources and support to help meet the needs of individuals.
Set Goals: Individual learning plans (ILP’s) can set goals for students, as ILP’s are reviewed by teachers termly. The assessment shows where the student was, and where they are at now. It is checked to see if progression is made and if goals set were achieved. Goals are set because it gives students a motivation to work harder and feel proud when accomplished. It is vital for teachers to recognise which student is not progressing, so they can work together with the student to find out information. Those students who are behind, may have additional needs that the assessments have picked up. Usually the teacher would do a referral to someone who has experience in this field to help both teacher and student. For example, a teacher may see a student who keeps failing their exams. The teacher would then look at the percentage the student has received and help better it by finding out why the student keeps failing, having extra lessons with them, referring them to a diagnostic assessment if they feel they have additional needs etc. All of these are important to consider when meeting the needs of learners, as these assessments help teachers provide extra resources when needed and help teachers understand and adapt their teaching styles to help better the learning of students.
Opportunities for self and peer assessment: “Self and peer assessment are important aspects of assessment for learning practice (see Assessment for learning). Assessing their own work or that of others can help pupils develop their understanding of learning objectives and success criteria” NFER (2017).This type of assessment allows teachers to understand more about the student as it is directly from them, also it may provide information that the teacher had not picked up on during the ‘practical observations’. This type of assessment may be empowering for students as they are able to take responsibility for their learning, also they are able to professionally critique themselves which may be easier for them than for a teacher to do so. Self-assessments can be handy when setting goals as it can increase enthusiasm and determination in students because they know what they need to do to enhance their education and training. Self-assessments can also show teachers what they need to do in order to provide an effective teaching method and inclusiveness in the class.
Engaging the learner: It’s important for assessment methods to reflect on individual specific needs, this is because each learner is different and will need various forms of methods to create a better understanding and for them to start engaging. Assessments should show what needs to improve in the most constructive way, this would be recognised by the tutor within the learning environment and should be included in the feedback/assessment in relation to specific needs the learner may have such as ‘needs extra time because of a learning difficulty’ or ‘needs extra assistance with literacy skills’, something that is specific to the learner so it can be reflected and acted upon. “Gather feedback on your teaching from the ones who are most comfortable with it – your students! Don’t wait until the end of a course to hear their opinions, ask frequently. Create activities where they can constructively criticise your teaching. It may be beneficial to have these be anonymous so the students will feel free to be honest.” Administrated Limited (2014). Once teachers can see individual needs needs of learners from assessments they can then plan on ways to help engage learners.
5.2 Demonstrate flexibility and adaptability in using types and methods of assessment to meet individual learning needs and assessment requirements.
Additional support if required/ provide current and suitable guidance: Some students require more help than others, additional support from teachers is offered to these students to help them gain understanding of their topics/lesson etc. There are variety of support given to students in different ways one example is one to one discussions with students reflecting on their work and looking over the areas they need help in. Having this sort of flexibility and adaptability is a great support as students may co-operate better with their learning when they are away from their peers and other distractions. Some students may be shy to ask for help, so they may email their teacher requiring help, which the teacher will give on a one to one basis. Other support such as using the “VLE” is used so students can access PowerPoints and references to help with their coursework. “Being able to work at their own pace is particularly beneficial to students. This allows the student to personalise their learning, to go back on lessons taught in classrooms and revise on their work, or if they feel confident they can progress to the next level or topic and prepare for lessons ahead. Doing so allows them to reinforce teaching and learning in the classrooms.” XELIUM (2018). My students use VLE when they need to access help when my mentor is not there. Furthermore, VLE has different formats of learning e.g. videos and case studies. These alter to each and everyone learning needs as we all learning differently.
Timing negotiated with learners: Some students will have learning disabilities such as dyslexia, which requires a teacher to become flexible and adapt to their learning needs. For example, a student with dyslexia would require extra exam and assignment time. This is because it takes students time to read and understand the question before answering. In my opinion I think this is fair as they get to have equal opportunities as others. “on the grounds that dyslexics are sufficiently disadvantaged by the speed at which they can perform literacy tasks alone, one would imagine, should be enough to allow them a little extra time. Being Dyslexic (2018)
In conclusion, every student is different and comes with different styles of learning and understanding. It is the teacher’s role to be able to be flexible and adaptable to the individual learning needs as much as they can, however with that being said they should also consider to also treat everyone equally, even if some students do not have learning needs.
5.3 Demonstrate the use of assessment data in:
Monitoring learner’s achievement, attainment and progress.
Setting learners targets.
Planning subsequent session.
Recording the outcomes of assessment.
“Assessment is an integral part of instruction, as it determines whether or not the goals of education are being met. Assessment affects decisions about grades, placement, advancement, instructional needs, curriculum, and, in some cases, funding.” George Lucas Educational Foundation (2018)
Monitoring achievements (observation record): Observations are recorded in student’s individual learning plans. From observation teachers can see the areas students lack and can then do lesson plans based on their weaknesses. “Both research and common sense support the notion that we need to monitor student performance on an ongoing basis. If we are ever to know how we are doing, we will need to know where our students are. “School improvement (2016). Teachers are expected to know where there students are performing in relation to their grades, learning and academics. Teachers are most likely to monitor students achievements in their individual learning plans, which is backed up as evidence to see progression of each students.
Target setting (Individual Learning Plans): An individual learning plan (ILP’S) records developments, targets and reflection on learning process. Through learning plans teachers can find out how their students learn best, and what appropriate resources need to be implemented in their learning, so they progress the same as the other children. Individual learning plans help promote equality as all children needs are considered. An ILP starts with a one to one discussion with the learner and speaking about outcomes and goals set for the term, for students to achieve. Teachers will then start to observe and study the additional data to understand the student’s weaknesses and strength. Lessons plans are a strategy used to help students achieve their given goals in their ILP’s. ILP’S are recorded with future carer plans, timing, targets, recording and reflection of a learner’s journey through learning.
Session Planning (extension of activies): Extension of activities are used to challenge student’s skills, abilities and cognitive state. “When you’re teaching along this line, you’re striking an important balance. That balance is that you’re providing a learning experience that is challenging without becoming frustrating. Challenge is important for students because it forces them to grow. When something is not challenging, it’s easy – and an “easy” learning environment is hardly one that encourages appropriate development – it may rather lead to boredom. When a particular course is easy, it may mean that the standards are too low.” Catapano, J (2009) It’s used as a technique to challenge and extend students learning further. These skills are important as teachers are preparing students to use their own minds when it comes to preparing for their own career choice. All jobs require their employees to have certain skills which they can bring to the job. So, with teacher extended activities put students in a real-life situation as this is what they would come across when they leave their learning.
Recording Outcomes (Completion of units): Once students have finished each of their assignments, along with their evidence and bibliography. It is recorded in their portfolio and given to the organisation who oversees these qualifications e.g. Pearson. “Recording is an essential task in human services. It helps to focus the work of staff and supports effective partnership and planning with people who use services. When adopting an outcomes focused approach, practitioners should be encouraged to use recording as an analytical tool and as a way of clarifying the purpose of their interventions.” Miller, E and Cook A (2011) The organisation then would look over the student’s assignment and give the student a pass or a fail or a percentage, which would then be followed by a certificate to show off their achievements.
5.4 Communicate assessment information to other professionals with an interest in learner achievement.
Communication between teachers and other professionals is essential as both parties share the same interest. Communication is the link to improving teacher’s standards as well as the organisation. “By establishing standards for teacher competence in student assessment, the associations subscribe to the view that student assessment is an essential part of teaching and that good teaching cannot exist without good student assessment.” American Federation of Teachers (1990). Communication with the students is vital too as it allows the teacher to gain understanding of the student background and needs. For example, seeing what works for students and what doesn’t will come from the student’s voice.
Individual progress: “Assessment is the knowing and understanding of learning, a continual process involving both learners and teachers. As part of this process, teachers need to analyse and record key pieces of assessment information and utilise these to make informed decisions about how to support on-going learning and development.”AAIA (2018) Head of department are there to support teachers who need help with certain students. For example, a student may be misbehaving by not attending lessons. The teacher would inform the head of department to find out why this student is behaving in this manner. Depending on the situation, support would be placed to help the learner achieve regardless. When sharing information in the best interest of the learner, it creates a good team work effort from all teachers to improve on their own abilities as well as their students.
Sharing paper based tracking: Information such as scheme of work and curriculum design etc.… is informed to other professionals such as lecturers and head of department. Both parties have a great interest in learners development as they would come together to produce the best learning for their students. With saying that, Preparation to progress the skills enclosed in the standards, would be a primary portion of preservice preparation. Furthermore, assessment training should be available to teachers, through staff expansion programs at the district levels.
Normally head of department is whom, teachers communicate with it, they want to give feedback on student’s progress. This could be their achievements, behaviour or confidential information about student.
Contributing to centrally held electronic recording: Different assessments can be done electronically and given to the head of department as an interest in learners. For example a teacher may have a student who is misbehaving by truanting from lessons. The electronic recording would give a percentage of how much the student’s attendance is, then there would be a meeting held with the student to discuss the issues as to why the learner is not attending lessons and find a plan as to how to get them to go to a lesson. The learner may have a problem with a certain teacher, therefore there would be plans in place to do their learning with another teacher. Furthermore, the student can start to learn and start to achieve the best in their learning.
Tracking electronically can have many benefits such as:
Helping the teacher to see their student’s progressions in their learning journey.
It helps plan out appropriate learning that meets learner’s needs.
Recognising the students who are weaker and may need more help.
More benefits include confidentiality of students, and keeping each students profile in one place.
5.5 Explain how own assessment practice has taken account of theories, models and principles of assessment.
There are three main models of assessments used in lifelong learning, these include an initial assessment, formative and summative assessment. Assessment is the process of evaluating an individual’s learning by generating and collecting evidence of a learner’s ability, skills and knowledge of understanding. Learners use assessments throughout their journey to appraise and review their understanding.
Holistic or Integrated approach: The principles of an assessment, should be reliable, student centred, have a purpose, have a holistic approach and leading o further planning to enhance skills and development etc. There are three assessments we use in education and training, these are initial, summative and formative assessment. Each of these assessments occur at different time, for example initial assessment is done before learning, and summative is done at the end of learning to see what the student’s progression is and what has been achieved. Initial assessments can be done in many ways, I did an initial assessment on my students when I first started my placement. The reason being was because I wanted to find out how my students learn, what their goal was and their preferred way of learning. This was important for me to know, so I could plan and adapt to meet the needs and learning of the individuals in my classroom. Furthermore, by I did a questionnaire that I created myself, so students could answer it. By having the student’s answer these questions benefited both of us as the answers coming from the students were truthful therefore making it reliable, which is a principle of assessments. “Validity ensures that assessment tasks and associated criteria effectively measure student attainment of the intended learning outcomes at the appropriate level.” University of assessment (2018)
Learner ownership of learning: Anderson, J theory was known as the declarative and procedural knowledge. He believed knowledge starts with “declarative knowledge” and then follows through with “procedural knowledge” through influences the facts the learner already knows. For example, through my experience in teaching, I know it is my role to give information and knowledge to my students. It is important for students to understand the information given so students can process the information to their knowledge. However, I understand some information can be forgotten (declarative knowledge), so I try and approach my delivery and teaching in several of approaches e.g. visual effects, presentation, handouts etc. I do this because it is a reminder or the information they have learnt (procedural knowledge) so it cannot be easily forgotten as the student already has the facts and is store in their memory for long term. This leads to ownership of their own learning as they can refer to later when they come across test and exams. Which then leads to academic success as they have learnt from the teacher.
6.1 Analyse ways in which minimum core elements can be demonstrated in planning, delivering and assessing inclusive teaching and learning.
Every teacher should understand the minimum core elements, these are maths, literacy, ICT and language skills. All teachers are expected to demonstrate these in their teaching practice, as it helps teachers carry out their roles professionally and support learners advance on these skills. Each of these four elements come into planning, delivery and assessing with students.
Planning (Group activities) : Planning is a crucial part in teaching, as planning helps teachers to be inclusive and time efficient. Planning helps teachers see, which students need to be challenged and which students need to be pushed in terms of learning and progression. Teachers may want to incorporate group activities, so others can develop on their social and language skills. “students engaged in group work, or cooperative learning, show increased individual achievement compared to students working alone.” Washington of university (2018) However, if a student does not feel comfortable in working in groups, a teacher should not make them work in groups, as some students may suffer with anxiety from others, which would not make a good learning experience for them. Instead they can work in smaller groups or pair work, and then when teachers see that student confidence grow, they can challenge them to work in bigger groups. Teachers should also try and bring out opportunities through their planning. For example, have students explore and discover their own skills, through Q and A questionnaire. Planning should cover all four elements in the minimum core, as it will help students a lot with their own work and learning.
Delivery (Literacy, Language, Numeracy and ICT): When delivering to students, teachers are expected to communicate well and clearly so students can gain knowledge of their course. When teachers come across students who cannot understand the language very well, it is the teacher’s duty to help the student, by asking them what the cause is. Furthermore, students who cannot speak the language will be picking up words from their teacher, which is why it is essential for teachers to speak correctly and professionally. Delivering also includes the use of ICT skills, as some students may be visual learners or short sighted, the use of a technology board in big will help deliver to students and include them in the lesson too. However, it is important for teachers to deliver correct information and deliver their literacy, language, numeracy and ICT skills well. “?Teachers require extensive, on-going exposure to ICTs to be able to evaluate and select the most appropriate resources. Info Dev (2018). If teachers do not have the knowledge of using ICT skills, then they can speak to their managers about taking a ICT course. This will then help refresh their memories and update their knowledge on new technology. Teachers can then help their students, who do not know how to use computers etc. Some assignments require presentation, so knowing how to work a computer and how to upload files is crucial as it is part of students learning.
Assessing (Making use of naturally occurring evidence): When assessing students, it is important it is not made up and is reliable with correct information. Assessments can be done from activities, observations and literacy skills in their work. For example, a teacher may recognise a student whose literacy skills are not what is expected, thereby they would refer them to a diagnostic assessment to see if they have dyslexia. Once the assessment is confirmed, it makes it easier for teachers to understand the student. Teachers can then plan and observe their literacy skills and look out for any mistakes. Which is why it being essential for teachers to have these minimum core element skills in the first place. Some students learning is vulnerable, so teachers must approach their learning in a sensitive manner and help them gain confidence over time and help them gain progress.
6.2 Apply minimum core elements in planning, delivering and assessing inclusive teaching and learning.
The minimum core has four elements, these are language, literacy, maths and ICT. These minimum core skills are rooted into the teaching qualifications. “All teachers should have a knowledge and understanding of literacy, language, numeracy, and information and communication technology (ICT) skills.” G, Anne (2014) by being able to demonstrate these skills into teaching will help teachers carry out their roles efficiently and support students sufficiently with their own skills in these four areas.
Language (Professional Discussion) : Language is important to learn as it is language that helps us understand what is being said and what needs to be done. However, some students may have English as their second language, so teachers must plan, deliver and assess in an inclusive manner. “Teachers will be able to: identify personal, cultural, linguistic, institutional, and teaching and learning factors that may inhibit the development of language and literacy skills.” The Education and Training Foundation (2016). It is important to close these barriers as these barriers stop individual learning. Therefore, teachers need an inclusive approach towards students who cannot speak the language to help them progress. To be inclusive teachers would arrange further classes to help support them. Teachers can use visual effects to help them make sense of what is going on in the lesson. It is essential for teachers to make their learners experience as motivational and inclusive as they can. In addition to this, teachers need to communicate with their learners about their aims, needs and goals. By communicating with each other, teachers can gain knowledge on an individual by questioning them. Also communicating with students to listen to their responses and teachers should answer them professionally and appropriately. However, as I did mention, there are some students who cannot understand the English language, so they would need further support by taking English classes. The tutor (teacher) can communicate with the student’s English teacher to see how they are progressing with their language. Within time students should be able to understand lesson and communicate in the English language. Also teachers can then work with students, as they will start to notice the errors in their language and can help correct them.
Literacy (written assignments): Being able to read and write is an essential skill to have for both student and teachers, students are required to have at least basic skills. Which is why when students are enrolled onto a college course they are asked to take a maths and English test, so teachers can see their appropriate level. Another reason is for teachers too see if any student has any additional learning needs such as dyslexia. if teachers do find a student who may have dyslexia, they can then refer them for a diagnostic assessment where it would have evidence that, that student is dyslexic. Once this is done, teachers are then able to plan and provide extra resources and help to the students. if this wasn’t done, students learning would be delayed and the minimum core would not be implemented. Also, it is important for students to be able to read, as most task they are required to do is either an assignment or an exam. Students are expected to reach a certain percentage for their exam, to pass their course. Which is why teachers must look for spelling grammars and punctuation when analysing a student work, so then they can help the individual improve and succeed their course/education. When teachers are planning, it is important they know what they are planning and who are they are planning for. If teachers cannot do literacy it would make their role as a teacher impossible as planning requires understanding and writing. Also, when other professionals such a management or Ofsted encounter with teacher planning, they would not understand and would be concerned what the teacher is teaching their student. When teachers are writing on the board, every word must have correct spelling and grammar, as students are learning from their teachers. Also, when assessing students and giving them feedback, it would be hard to understand if teachers could not write correctly, which would then lead to confusion to students.
Numeracy (Data): When planning for students, teachers need to consider timing. Timing plays a big part in planning and lessons as each lesson is 40 minutes. So, within this 40 minutes teachers need to plan out what they want their students to do and what they want their students to learn. Teachers would essentially calculate how long an activity would take, how long a test/re-cap would take and how much work can be done from the student. If teachers did not calculate the timing in their planning, then lessons would not be organised, and students may miss out important knowledge that requires them to pass. Furthermore, counting the students who are attending and counting the students who are absent is important, as teachers may meet a student who is missing lessons regularly. A further assessment would have to done on students who are missing lessons, to find out what is the problem. When teachers are grading students work, they must calculate the percentage and give them correct calculation, this is another important factor as teachers are able to see students who are below average and can then plan to help them raise these calculations. It would not be fair if teachers were to guess students results as it is not inclusive and not reliable.
ICT (word processing): A lot of tasks are done on a computer, which involves knowing how to work online/technology materials. In my placement, student can communicate with my mentor via email about their assignments. This is a professional email; which students can have if they need extra help. Teachers also prepare classroom presentations on the board to deliver to their student. Having a big board in the classroom helps visual learners as some visual learners may find it hard to see if a teacher was to write on the board. In my placement, my mentor has the control to student’s computers where she can link her presentation to student’s computers. So, students would have their work in front of them, which I think is a great idea as it saves students from complaining about space and if they cannot see. Teachers can research on specific needs using the internet, they can find out more information and find other organisation who can help. Which can also help them with their planning and delivering to certain students as teachers have researched on their needs. Teachers can also do online courses which they can access, to help them understand and be inclusive towards individual’s needs.
7.1 Use theories and models of reflection to evaluate the effectiveness of own practice in planning, delivering and assessing inclusive teaching and learning.
Asses-Plan-Do-Review: The “Assess-Plan-Do-Review” cycle is mainly for students with special educational needs (SEN). “This cycle can be used to meet the needs of children/young people and improve practice at many levels ensuring that: individual children/young people at SEN support and those with an EHC plan receive the best possible provision and achieve positive outcomes” Cornwall Council (2018) Educational settings who come into contact with SEN students must meet the needs of young people who have SEN, as it is part of a teachers practice to ensure each of their students receive adequate support with their learning as well as their education. The cycle ensures there is a baseline for all students and then analyses the student’s special educational needs, it then creates an analysis and next step for student. The first step would be assessing a student e.g. checking the progress of the student, speaking with parents. Second would be the planning e.g. what support from teachers and external agencies is there and what is going to be put in place to plan for the student’s progress. The third would be involving interventions to the classroom, and the fourth is review e.g. the review would be done in a certain amount of planned time to measure the effective of progression. In my placement I have not seen the “assess-plan-do-review” take place, however I do know that for a teacher to be the best at what they do, it is through meeting the needs of SEN students. “The Special Educational Needs and Disability Code of Practice makes it clear that all teachers are responsible and accountable for the progress of all learners in their class, including where they access support from teaching assistants or specialist staff.” Packer, N (2017) if I ever come across a situation where I must implement the cycle for SEN student I now know what to consider and how vital it is for a SEN student to progress.
SWOT analysis to identify strength and areas for improvement: The SWOT analysis delivers information that is collected and is useful in corresponding the organisations funds and abilities to viable setting’s, it then functions. Consequently, a significant influence on the strategic planning process.
The SWOT analysis reflection and evaluation analysis:
Strength: what were the advantages.
Weaknesses: what could be avoided next time, what could be put in to make it better.
Opportunities: what good opportunities are obtainable for one.
Threats: what obstacles are in place, are you financially supported.
This analysis is great as it covers all areas for improvement, ensuring no opportunities are missed. It gives teachers the abilities to correct their practice as teachers and also guides student’s teachers like myself.
ILP (Individual learning plan): An Individual learning plans (ILP) is an assessment which takes students learning and education into great consideration (those who are not reaching their full potential). It is managed by the mentor and helps them identify what strength and weaknesses they may have and seek additional help if required. An ILP is done before delivering to a student. In my placement we carry out ILP’S on certain students who are not reaching their full abilities, we acknowledge the students who need to be taught and addressed differently. Furthermore, to see if further resources need to be implemented into our teaching and delivering.
Teachers must never ignore or presume all learners can learn the same as they would be ignoring inclusive practice. By doing an ILP teachers give learners a productive learning experience. When we create an ILP and we give students specific targets to reach, we follow the acronym “SMART” (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timing).
In addition to that, a reviewing takes place to see further improvement, we do this, so learners achieve to their best abilities. We carry out a variety of data to process learners progress such as exams, further observations and test results. If, however progress is not being made by the learner, we adapt to a different approach of teaching and request other professionals if needed.
Formal Self Appraisal Review: “Reviewing performance is a critical competency for a manager to be effective, yet it also can be difficult. Most employees care about how their performance is perceived by management.” Poskey, M (2013) with these appraisal reviews managements ensure expectation are set clear, ensuring our action matches our words and that we are given responsibilities. I had a similar event where I was called to the office to speak with the management. They wanted to see how I was getting on as this was my first experience in a college. I told them I was getting on well. They asked if I had any concerns, I told them that I want to ensure I give my best to all students including the ones who have additional needs. I asked if I could go on training to better my practice to be as inclusive as I could, they agreed and looked into a SENCO training for me. I feel this would help my teaching and learning as my manager was giving me the opportunity to better my weakness.
7.2 Analyse ways to improve own practice in planning, delivering and assessing inclusive teaching and learning.
Planning: Before I plan a lesson, I go over my planning with my mentor, she supports me when I deliver, teach and plan. My mentor supports me in many ways, she knows that I am a visual learner, so she shows me her lesson plans and tells me what I must include. As there are three SEN students and she knows I do not have much experience within the SEN field. She sends me videos and handouts on how I can help plan towards SEN students. However, I believe helping SEN students is a weakness of mine that I really need to improve on. I told my my mentor I find it hard to teach towards their needs, and I feel like I am failing them. My mentor (with my permission) arranged a SEN training course for me to go on. The course will help me improve my teaching skills to all including SEN students. It will give me confidence and I will find it easier to plan e.g. body language, extra resources etc.
Delivering: When I deliver to the classroom, I ensure each session is creative and interactive to everyone. After each training session, my mentor provides me with feedback which enables me to develop further improvements. I always strive to develop ways of managing my own learning, keeping up to date with new legislation, reading, researching and ensuring that my planned training sessions are relevant, meeting the trainees needs. For example, I teach a childcare class, I ensure my training guidance is relevant e.g. including updates of new legislation and EYFS. However, my mentor has observed me and provided back useful feedback on my deliverance to the classroom. She told me one of my weaknesses is my body language and adapting to different styles of teaching. She told me my activities were engaging but my performance didn’t match up to what activities were set. She explained to me the importance of changing styles of teaching is essential as each learner learns differently, by adapting my style of teaching regularly, it includes all learners learning style, furthermore keeps them involved.
Assessing: Having online approaches for assessing students learning progress, gains student’s confidence, which leads to them becoming more involved in understanding what they are expected to do. “Assessment for learning (AFL) is an approach to teaching and learning that creates feedback which is then used to improve students” performance.” Cambridge International Education Teaching and Learning Team (2018). The AFL is an online approach which helps close gaps in students current learning and where they aspire to be in terms of achievement. “AFL involves students becoming more active in their learning and starting to ‘think like a teacher’. Cambridge International Education Teaching and Learning Team (2018). This approach helps improve my practice as it guides me on how teachers teach, I become more active in my own learning and I set aims and plans on how I plan to achieve this.
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Evidence for this assignment is given in a separate document.