In this modern world of technology

In this modern world of technology, a cellular device is a must have for every individual. The main use of a cell phone is that it allows for people to communicate with their friends and family through text messaging. Text messaging has become an integral part of everyone’s life, especially teens. The reason for this is because text messaging is very efficient in situations where face-to-face or phone conversations are not possible or appropriate. Even though it has its advantages to it, less attention has been paid to one of the major disadvantages text messaging has on teens. With the rapidly growing rate of phone usage, concerns have been raised about its influence on the literacy skills of young adults. So, the research topic for my investigation is “how is text messaging affecting teen literacy”.
This is a very important issue because texting has become an everyday task that many teenagers engage in on a day to day basis. Which means that teens are continuously typing reduced and abbreviated words. Considering the popularity of text messaging to teenagers, it is believed that this type of communication is destroying the way people read, think and write.

Ochonogor , W., Alakpodia, N., ; Achugbue, I. (2012). The Impact of Text Message Slang (Tms) or Chartroom Slang on Students Academic Performance. International Journal of Internet of Things,1(2): 1-4. doi:10.5923/j.ijit.20120102.01
The main idea of this journal article is the high usage of slang text in the Delta State University, Abraka. The slang text even written in academic writing. Text messages cannot always determine the tone of voice or mood of the communicator. What makes it more worse is that, even as text is replacing both oral and written communications, the use of slang has virtually taken over good English manners and those using slang seem to be comfortable with it. The study therefore sought the effects such improper language can have on students’ academic performance. A questionnaire was used as a source of a descriptive survey method, which was divided into various parts for the purpose of obtaining information for this research. A total of 324 students were sampled. The results were displayed on multiple tables, each concluding different aspects of text messaging. From the findings in table 1, it is observed that 99.38% of the sampled teens regularly make use of text message. From table 2, it is quite evident that majority of the students are uncertain on when to make use of slangs or chat room language even when they write a formal text to their lecturers. All the other tables also resulted negatively for the Delta State University students. As a result, text message or slang text is negative when teens become addicted to to it, and it is displayed in academic writing. Even though the students are aware of the dangers associated with the use of text messaging slangs, especially during examinations, they still cannot stop it because they unconsciously use it.

This article helps me with my research because it displays just how robust text messaging could be. This article determined a very negative aspect towards text messaging, which would be very useful for my research. This is the fear that we all had, that technology will soon over power mankind, and this is what has started to happen. Using slang language has become so addicting, that even in an academic writing piece, it is being delivered. Knowingly or unknowingly, it still continues to happen. This is the harsh reality that is happening in various places around the world, and this will be a very interesting aspect for my research project.

Ouellette, G., & Michaud, M. (2016). Generation text: Relations among undergraduates’ use of text messaging, textese, and language and literacy skills. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 48(3), 217-221. http://dx.doi.org.ledproxy2.uwindsor.ca/10.1037/cbs0000046

The main issue of this journal article was that due to the continuous use of textese, which are abbreviated and informal types of language, will that cause a problem to an individual’s knowledge and literary conventions. The author mentioned various grammatical errors used in text messaging that violate the rules of language and vocabulary: logograms, contractions, shortenings and capitalization. Interestingly, a new methodology was brought into observation; QWERTY keyboards. With the advancement of a QWERTY keyboard on all of the smartphones, the use of textese has decreased. This is because, functions like autocomplete and predictive text messaging are inclined on the keyboard, so there is no need for individuals using textese. A study was conducted to see if there are any correlations between text-messaging behaviors/language and literacy related domains, while also considering the current state of textese use in young adults. 51 undergraduate psychology students participated in this study, with the usage of their own mobile phones. They were all tested on spelling, reading, receptive vocabulary, and other various text messaging tasks, along with a text messaging questionnaire. The results determined that there was very little correlation between text-messaging frequency and literacy-related skills. Therefore, their premise, that text messaging holds negative associations with language and literacy, was not supported. Additionally, these results suggested that research done previously on this topic may no longer be applicable to modern text messaging due to continuous advancements in technology that have led to the decline of textese usage.
This study helps me with my research because it shows me that although the use of textese was very common in teens before, with the new advancements in technology and the new QWERTY keyboard–unlike the numbered keyboards on the old phones, teens do not have to use textese, because there are faster and more efficient texting features now. Which are, autocorrect and predictive text. With these features, the words used in text messaging are in the full form and written with a click of a button. This way, the grammar and vocabulary of teens does not get spoiled.

Veater, H. M., Plester, B., & Wood, C. (2011). Use of text message abbreviations and literacy skills in children with dyslexia. Dyslexia, 17(1), 65-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dys.406
This article explores the use of textisms amongst children with dyslexia and focuses on the relationship between textism use and literacy skills in comparison to matched controls. The author further states that children with dyslexia tend to exclude themselves from the literacy platform, altogether, due to lack of confidence. Yet, when they are encouraged, they willingly take part. So, it seems possible that texting may offer dyslexic children a path into developing literacy skills which is unharmful. The research question remained that, do dyslexic children exhibit the same engagement with textisms that their peers do? Along with, are there the same positive associations between textism use and literacy that have been observed previously in typically-developing children? The study took a sample of 65 children. 13 of whom were dyslexic, as identified by an Educational Psychologist. The assessment consisted of a Verbal IQ test, “to assess phonological and phoneme-grapheme conversion skills: the rhyme detection and nonword reading subtests.” Participants were also asked to provide copies of their text messages sent over a weekend, and the number of textisms used by participants in their messages was recorded. The ratio of textisms to total number of words used in the messages was calculated, with ‘0’ indicating no use of textisms, and ‘1’ indicating use of nothing but textisms. Their findings determined that although, dyslexic children participate in text messaging, and they use similar textism as their peers, they preferred to use non-phonetic forms more than the typically-developing children did. Also, there was little evidence of a positive relationship between phonological awareness and textism use for this group. It is important to consider that, some of the dyslexic children’s textisms could reflect genuine attempts to spell words correctly.
This article helps me with my research because it deals with a different concept; textism use amongst children with dyslexia. This study brings children and teens with a learning disability into consideration, which will help to expand my research project and put more aspects into it. The study assessed both, children with dyslexia and without it to compare the two minds when it comes to using textism and the relationship it has to their literary skills. This offered an analysis to a lot of pending questions. This analysis compared the two types of children, as well as, it determined the findings of the study, in regards to the literacy skills of each type of student. Therefore, this resource is very relevant to my research project, which is about “how text messaging affects teen literacy.”
Vosloo, S. (2009). The effects of texting on literacy: Modern scourge or opportunity. Shuttleworth Foundation, 2-6.
This journal article portrays the negative responses from teachers, parents and language experts on texting. They blame texting for two problems: language corruption and the spelling degradation of youth writing. To see if this modern technology brought any advantage to the present, a study was conducted with 10-12 year-old children in the UK; between the usage of textisms and school literacy attainment. The study found little evidence that using text language damages pre-teen standard English vocabulary. Yet, the study was tenuous because effects of socio-economic status, parental education and cultural values were not taken into consideration. So, again a study was conducted, with 63 children aged 8-12 years, to further associate the texting-literacy relationship. Again, the initial results indicate that use of textisms is positively related to the development of reading and phonological awareness. The study showed that texting allows the children to use their creativity with the construction of language that they are learning about at school. The study proves that reading and writing textisms in digital form on mobile phones is beneficial for children, because “it provides children with an additional resource for learning about and experimenting with letter-sound correspondences and language, and for reading and ‘decoding’ text.” Although, texting is still somewhat of a problem in classrooms, it is not banned. Teachers are not concerned about what the children are writing, as long as they are writing.

This article helps me with my research because the misconceptions about text messaging, that text messaging declines a child’s grammar and vocabulary, are proven to be wrong. The past views of the teachers to the present views, regarding texting are quite interesting. Before, texting was seen as an assault to student literacy. But, now texting is seen as a beneficial means in the learning process. This proves that when these pre-teens will become teens, their minds will be more creative, and they have great experience with developing new language. Therefore, these contrasting views from past to present and the idea on how texting is beneficial for students is relevant to my research on how text messaging affects teen literacy.
Williams, A. R. (2012). Using Text Messaging to Summarize Text. Srate Journal, 21(1), 24-28.

The main idea of this article was all about summarization. Being in college, students should know what summarizing means and how it should be done. But, that was not the case for student attending this college, which remains unnamed. The author, who is also the professor of these students, began by effectively teaching the steps on how to summarize. Methods such as, graphic organizers, repeated readings, reading response journals, read alouds, and cooperative learning groups were used. After the strategies were taught, practiced and applied to the different texts (i.e. paragraphs from the textbook, research based articles from journals, and online sources), students were now challenged with the task of summarizing. Due to the overgrowing popularity of smartphones, the instructor used a free text messaging application (TextNow) as a tool to teach summarization. The max word limitation was 160 characters. The instructor modeled how to write down only the main ideas and supporting information and each cooperative group summarized paragraphs and sent the instructor summaries via text messaging During the second half of the class session, individual students practiced summarizing single paragraphs while the instructor provided individual and class feedback. The analysis of summarizing through the usage of text messaging, proved to be beneficial to students. Students enjoyed the use of a mobile device to send and receive messages; it encouraged collaboration and communication. They felt more ease when completing the assignment because they did not have to concentrate on correct spelling and could text freely. However, the students’ texts contained letter/number homophones, g-clippings, omitted apostrophes, non-conventional spellings, and shortenings. But, they were now being able to write summaries, instead of retelling the entire text and their summaries could easily be translated to Standard English, once they were done.
This article is relevant to my research project because it deals with a specific literary device, in regard to text messaging. Which is summarization. Summarization is a perfect example of literacy because it deals with both reading and writing. This study showed just how beneficial text messaging is for teen literacy, and it gave me an executed research practice with which I can hold strong points in regard to text messaging with literacy.