Having seen its desperate importance and the great efforts of the government in achieving good governance

Having seen its desperate importance and the great efforts of the government in achieving good governance, this study stands to assess governance in public institutions making its topic of the challenges of good governance in public institutions.’ The main objective of the study is assessing the challenges good governance in public sector and the research was conducted on 10 public institutions purposefully selected In Shabe Sombo woreda selected public office. The study employed qualitative and quantitative research methodology and data was collected through questionnaire method and the data obtained both from public institution employees and service users together with the information obtained through interview from selected officials. The descriptive analysis made revealed that institutions are on the way striving to achieve governance practically in their institutions. Based on the analysis conducted using five core elements of good governance namely accountability, transparency, equity and equality, effectiveness and efficiency and participation different achievements and failures were observed. Frameworks and mechanisms for good governance implementation are found ready. The necessity of engaging the society in full scale participation, the need for trainings, workshop, seminars, on good governance, increasing implementing capacity of the institutions, the necessity of using different mass medias including the regional mass medias for good governance issues , struggling against corruptions are recommended for the failures in public institutions in their run forward to achieve good governance.

Table of Contents
Abstract i
CHAPTER ONE 2-1
2 INTRODUCTION 2-1
2.1 General background of the study 2-1
2.2 Statement of the problem 2-4
2.3 Objectives 2-6
General objective 2-7
Specific objectives 2-7
2.4 Research Questions 2-7
2.5 Significance of the study 2-7
2.6 Scope of the study 2-8
Due to time and resource constraints, the research did not based on comprehensive study of all challenges that society is comforting in the contemporary world. It was not also include all the sectors in shabe sombo woreda. The study was confined to the assessment of that challenge and opportunities of good governance. This study focused on the assessment of the challenges of good governance in Shabe Sombo woreda selected public sector in Jimma zone of oromia region. The study will undertook different stockholders such as Shabe Sombo woreda cabinets, focus on selected different sector employees and public sector stockholders. Therefore, any term found in the study will interpret in relation to good governance in Shabe Sombo woreda. 2-8
2.7 Limitation of the study 2-8
As the concept of governance is multidimensional that includes social, economic and political aspects; it is difficult to draw inferences from political and administrative dimension, hence this study gives more emphasis to the political and institutional dimensions even though they are not mutually exclusive .There are various factors that influenced and affected the research. Among these, some of the respondents are unwilling to give reliable and valid data especially about their personal information .Some of the respondent in the woreda and administration departments may refuse to give information and turn back interview guides. 2-8
? The officials of the woreda cannot be obtained by the reason of close meeting. 2-9
? Respondents may fear to tell the reality due to the political nature of the case. 2-9
? Financial constraint during collecting sufficient data from extended number of sample respondent, time and social constraints for data gathering and analysis. 2-9
? The overlap of work and interruption of study because of government work and social problems. 2-9
2.8 Operational definitions of key terms 2-9
CHAPTER- TWO 2-11
3 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 3-11
3.1 Theoretical framework of the study 3-11
3.1.1 Governance and Government 3-11
3.1.2 Concept of Good Governance 3-12
3.1.3 Concept of Development 3-14
3.1.4 Good governance assessment models 3-14
3.1.5 Relationship between People’s Participation and Good Governance 3-16
3.1.6 Models of Good Governance on the Basis of Participation Levels 3-17
Reviewing all above statements and models, an outline and diagram of models of governance on the basis of people’s participation can be drawn up, which is shown along with the following lines 3-17
3.1.7 Core elements of good governance 3-21
3.2 Conceptual frame work of the study 3-24
The conceptual frame work is adapted from {LIU,2002 ,Mardiasmo,2008 and semunigs ,2011} seeking to align the independent attributes those have effects on characteristics of good governance that are used as indicators to assess the practice of good governance to identify major challenges in implementation ,factors of good governance indication in the conceptual framework taken in consideration but not limited to it .Generally if identified factors positively affect those characteristic it lead to good governance and as result the quality of service delivery to the citizen increases . As the citizens delivered services that fit their need then their sense of belongingness on public institution increases and their trust on government too. 3-24
CHAPTER- THREE 3-26
4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES 4-26
4.1 Introduction 4-26
4.2 Description of the study Area 4-26
Research design 4-26
4.3 Research Approach 4-27
4.4 Population and Sampling Techniques 4-27
4.4.1 Target Population 4-28
4.4.2 Sample Frame 4-28
4.4.3 Sample unit 4-28
4.4.4 Sample Size 4-29
4.4.5 Sampling technique 4-31
4.4.6 Sampling design 33
4.4.7 Data collection techniques 33
Primary data sources 33
Secondary data source 34
4.4.8 Data collection instrument 34
4.4.9 Method of Data Analysis 34
4.5 Ethical Consideration 35
CHAPTER FOUR 36
5 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 36
5.1 Introduction 36
5.2 Response Rate 36
5.3 Validity ; Reliability of the Instrument 36
5.4 Demographic Profile of the Respondents 37
5.4.1 Gender of Respondents 37
5.4.2 Age of Respondents 37
5.4.3 Work Experience of Respondents 38
5.4.4 Educational Status 38
5.4.5 Marital status of the respondents 38
5.5 Challenges in implementation of Good Governance 39
5.5.1 Factors influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance 39
In general Good governance and effective leadership are the essential requirements for an organization to be considered successful in the eyes of all stakeholders in the 21st century. There is a direct link between Good Governance, effective leadership and economic prosperity. The difference between African and Asian countries, many of which started their history as states at the same point in the 1960s, is striking. Lack of effective leadership is the main cause for Africa’s lagging behind from the rest of the world. Governance intertwined with effective leadership is the key variable. Effective leadership and Good Governance is two sides of the same coin. The two have many elements in common. Without an effective leadership we may not envisage Good Governance in its totality. In fact, Good Governance may not be achieved in its totality because of cultural, psychological, social and sociological impacts and differences. Its implementation and perception also varies in line with the level of development and demands of the society. Due to this, the practice shows that very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality.(Ensuring good governance 21 Mar 2018 Editorial-View-Point) 41
5.5.2 Challenges facing the leaders in insuring good governance. 41
5.6 Practices of the core elements of Good Governance 43
5.6.1 Accountability 43
5.6.2 Participation 45
5.6.3 Effectiveness and Efficiency 47
5.6.4 Equity and Equality 48
5.6.5 Transparency 49
5.7 Opportunities to improve effective Good Governance 50
6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 52
6.1 Summary of the major findings 52
6.2 CONCLUSION 54
6.3 RECOMMONDATION 55

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CHAPTER ONE
1 INTRODUCTION
Good governance is said to be the basis of development in any democratic form of
government. The study of sector governance is very important to ensure Good governance in the woreda. Good governance was one of the best elements of the democracy in any country .This study was concerned on the challenges of good governance in shabe sombo selected sector .In this Chapter the general background, statement of the problems, the research questions, objective of the study, significance of the study, the scope of the study, and limitation of the study and research methodology were analyzed.
1.1 General background of the study
Good governance related to leader ship management and organization, which is leading of
economy on how to coordinate and mobilize the public at large the private sector and
nongovernmental organization for accelerated and sustained growth. This is done using
increasing productivity and production of different sectors such as farming, mining, education,
health, and mobilization of domestic activities and the others too. Proper application of Good
governance get better the quality of life of citizen, enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of
administration, create the legality and sincerity of institutions, secure freedom of
information and expression , provide citizen-friendly and citizen-caring administration.
Furthermore, it ensure accountability, using information and technology based service to
improve citizen government interface, improve the productivity of employs; and promote
organizational pluralism-state, market and civil society organization for governance. Good
governance includes capacity to formulate and implement sound policies by the government with due respect for citizens. From this framework, governance can be construed as consisting of six different elements. These are (1) Voice and accountability, which include civil liberties and freedom of the press,(2) Political stability,(3) Government effectiveness, which includes the
quality of po11licymaking and public service delivery(4) Quality of regulation,(5)Rule of law,
which includes protection of poverty rights and an independent judiciary, and (6)Control of
corruption Governance is the processes of decision making and implementing it. (Mercy Corps

Colombia, 2010) Now a day the issue of governance is questioned everywhere at public sector servicedelivery as well as private sector service delivery. According the implementation of governance it is classified as good governance and bad governance. (Mercy Corps. Colombia, 2010)
In a democratic government, government holds its power by election. Citizens elected their government by measuring the importance of its public policy whether it is appropriate to serve them or not. Good governance is the processes of decision making to implement governmental policies effectively and efficiently. The democratic government must insure that the principles of good governance such as rule of law, responsiveness, equity and inclusiveness, effectiveness and efficiency, transparency, accountability, participation. If, those of good governance principles violated bad governance will happen. (IFAD, September 1999)
The Horne of Africa was part of the continent which was in civil war for long period of time.
For long period of time the governments of those nations cannot ensure good governance. Some of the nations like Somalia were lived without government for the last two decades. Even though the nations try to create peaceful nation the neighboring countries support were limited. Sometimesthe neighboring nations interfere the weak nations due to their warier behavior. Because of this reason the region is still in sever poor condition now a day.
Ethiopia is one of the horns of Africa nation. And the nations pass several histories to get good government. For the last 25 years the EPRDF government secured the Peace of the nation. Besides the Peace kipping of the nation the country helps her neighboring countries for their Peace and this is unusual action through the history of the region. The country is also in great progress in developing Democracy and development. The nation develops different strategies to insure good governance. The implementation of good governance shows good result.
As the main development agenda of Ethiopian poverty eradication all development policies and strategies are there for geared to words this end effective implementation of this policies and
strategies are integrated and comprehensive manner of varies level of government
administration. It needs good governance, which is strategic direction of domestic governance in the country are to adopt infancy and enforces lows that support democracy and good governance conducts free fair and democratic election, ensure the human right of all citizens. To bring all economic and political development community had to respecting construction and democratic values. These forces government to give guarantee for the people are well-respected
strengthening accountability and financial system. Good governance plays key role in realizing
governments objectives eradicating poverty specially food shortage problem in short term,
backwardness of domestic economic sector, traditional use of land and animal husbandry, poor
use labor power too comparing of global agricultural practice chemical fertilizers and improved
seed at the national level, increase land productivity not only dependent of yearly rain water and ideal weather .As it is indicated in five years plan of growth and transformation (2010/11-2010/15) PASDEP ,challenges of good governance in different levels encounters when implementation where capacity constraints among leaders and public servants at different administrative levels. To reduce challenges government launched a number of process reengineering and training programs to improve skills and ensure appropriate implication capacity fanatical mobilization inflation problem, rain dependency, under performance of industrial sector and good practices. According to PASDEP leadership management and organization implement mobilization of domestic resource, good governance industrialization and social sector of instructor implement is taken as solution in a countries political and economic growth and stability for this and others some basic question to be answered.
The Oromia Regional state is one of among the nine regional states of the FDRE Government. Similar to the FDRE Government the Oromia regional state also implemented different reforms to improve good governance in its own region. In 1999 E.C the Oromia regional state developed good governance package. The package includes four programs such as decentralized administration, civil service improvement program, justice system improvement programs and information communication technology program. Those programs were implemented through the region until 1999 E.C and there was a great improvement on the governance from time to time. Even though there was progress, still now the regional government declares that luck of good governance is the challenges of the leadership. Because of this reasons the region forms a task force which follows the good governance performance activities. This task force engaged in its activity starting from 2003 E.C.
Shabe Sombo woreda is one of 21woredas of Jimma zone which is located about 445 kilometers away from Addis Ababa to the Western of the country from center. It is relatively far away from the center. It is my observation that the level of awareness about good governance is law. How, the society participate on good governance is passive and those of them who exercise political power are considered as deviants in the Woreda. In the area like other Ethiopian some society, goals, and ideologies were assumed to be only for the leading powers that Administrative zone, observed some over well known problems. One of them is low participation of society in good governance related facts and outlook on leadership roles which is initiated to undertake the study in the area. Thus, the study will tries to explore the challenges of good governance in Shabe Sombo woreda in selected public sector
The shabe sombo the public sector took different reform to enhance good governance in the woreda for the last 12 years. The issues of good governance now a day also raised by the community repeatedly. Due to this reason the researcher questioned to know the challenges of good governance in shabe sombo public sector and decided to write her research paper on the assessment of the challenges of good governance. I hope my MA research paper may help my woreda to know the basic challenges of leadership and to respond for those of challenges appropriately.
1.2 Statement of the problem
As it is indicated in five years plan of growth and transformation (2010/11-2010/15) Plan for Accelerated Progress and Sustainable Development to End poverty (PASDEP), challenges of good governance in different levels encounters during the implementation where capacity constraints among leaders and public servants at different administrative levels. Therefore, in order to curb challenges government launched a number of process reengineering and training programs to improve skills and ensure appropriate policy implementation and implication capacity fanatical mobilization inflation problem, rain dependency, under performance of industrial sector and good practices. Several studies have been conducted on good governance among which significance of good governance and its challenges in Ethiopia and the findings show that lack of knowledge and skill of the officers on right implementation of good governance has impact on societal outlook, which constrains playing part in governance. To curb challenges, Ethiopian government has taken number of measures that could be considered
as opportunities. This includes adaption of FDRE constitution, amendment of domestic laws, development plan that enhances the development of country in many accesses that helps society participate on government and related commitments of government (Gizaw,2014).challenges and opportunities of good governance in Ghana and the findings shown that until recently governance is characterized by poor institutional performance, weak parliament, and lack of independence of the judiciary, corrupt police force, political instability, abuse and misuse of political offices, insufficient budgetary accountability, and lack of respect for the rule of law and human rights. However, since around 1990s there observed significant improvement in respect to good governance in Ghana pertinent to performance of the institutions (Abrham, 2014).
The existence of poor responsiveness, lack of awareness about the management, lack of democracy, corruption, poor sense of ownership, double responsibility and lack of members’ awareness were found to be the reasons for weak performance. The binary logistic regression model results show that, four predictor variables such as participation, accountability, transparency and rule of law are found to be significant on the impact of cooperative performance which needs due attention of the concerned stake holders to maintain good governance practice(Dayanandan, 2013).
Besides, corruption and rent seeking behavior and activities, negligence by officials and employees of the municipality, lagging of response, lack of mechanism to ask municipality about its deeds and officials run for getting political loyalty from their bosses to either sustain their power or to upgrade their position rather work to solve residents’ problem, lack of financial, material and human resources, lack of institutional capacity are the major challenges (Dinka, 2016).
According to Sebudubudu (2010) on his study entitled ‘the impact of good governance on development and poverty’ argues that good governance in Botswana facilitated development and impacted positively on poverty reduction and political stability, to this extent, this has been a responsive democracy. It is the researcher observation that the echelon of attentiveness about leadership of how and when the society involving on good governance is low down and those who exercise political power are considered as deviants in the city administration that the policies and ideologies were assumed to be only the leading powers to the administrative zone was observed as an overwhelming problem. Among the many, the public official are not accountable for the decision they made, slight contribution of society in the decision making process that the communities are decision taker rather than decision maker, the contentment level of services user is too stumpy and not considered as influential to bring an effective governance related facts and outlook of leadership roles which is initiated to undertake a research in the study area. Good governance is an ideal in which political processes translate the will of the people into public policies and establish the rules that efficiently and effectively deliver services to all members of society. The development literature on governance identifies a number of characteristics of good governance, including the rule of law, transparency, accountability, efficiency and effectiveness, participation and responsiveness.1 These characteristics are easily applied to assess a country’s quality of governance in the public sector .In Ethiopia the concept and the practice of good governance is a new phenomenon.
The government began to implement it due to service delivery dissatisfaction on the part
of the country and growing consensus that it is the root cause of all round crises in the
country. The Shabe Sombo woreda has been faced several good governance problems that emanate due to limited budget and lack of commitment in various governmental insinuations different in the study area. The gap of capacity building and ill commitment tends to reduce the effectiveness of governmental institutions .The lack of executive’s educational qualification, poor facilities , limited budget, poor management, the absence of strategically oriented training, the policy could be the major cause of challenge of poor government in the woreda.
This paper discusses the major challenges facing shabe sombo public sector to day ,identifies governance problems that affect the capacity of the sector to meet those challenges ,assesses international experience with improving governance in public institution and its effects on its institutional out comes, and presents analytic tools which are helpful for evaluating the governance of public institution and progress towards good governance.
It is my observation that the level of awareness about good governance is law in the study area. How, the society participate in good governance is passive and those of them who exercise political power are considered as deviants in the Worada. In the area like other oromia zone some society goals and ideologies are assumed to be only for the leading powers that Administrative zone, observed some over well known problems. One of them is low participation of society in good governance related facts and outlook on leadership roles which is initiated to undertake the study in the area. Thus, the study tries to describe the challenges of good governance in Shabe Sombo woreda in public institution. Purpose of the study is to
Assess good governance concern of local governments by that to enhance good governance awareness level of leaders, employees and community at the woreda level.
1.3 Objectives
General objective
? The main objective of this research paper is to assess the challenges of good governance in shabe sombo public institution. .
Specific objectives
? To assess the challenge of good governance principles and practices during implementation in shabe sombo woreda selected public institution
? To identify opportunities that may enhance effective governance in Shabe Sombo woreda selected public institution.
? To assess the status of good governance application in Shabe Sombo woreda in selected Public sector
1.4 Research Questions
This research will address the following questions:
? What are the challenges of good governance principles in implementation?
? What opportunities are there to improve effective governance?
? What is the status of governance in Shabe Sombo woreda in selectedPublic sector
1.5 Significance of the study

The possible outcome of this study may provide and give broad information and real data about the topic gathered from reliable sources. Thus, it may have a helpful contribution to the presenting literature and research studies conducted around the area. Moreover, the research could discuss in detail the evaluation of the challenges of good governance. This study may provide in detail information on the factors which influence leaders’ decision in improving good governance. As well as it identifies the possible opportunities of leaders to build effective leadership. .
? To identify the major challenges and the prospects of good governance in the study area.
? To provide valuable information to information seekers regarding the major challenges of good governance in the municipalities of the zone.
? The study may serve as a stepping stone for others who want to pursue further study on similar or the same topic in the area.
? . To provide an input to authorities of the municipalities and decision makers for the future actions.
1.6 Scope of the study
Due to time and resource constraints, the research did not based on comprehensive study of all challenges that society is comforting in the contemporary world. It was not also include all the sectors in shabe sombo woreda. The study was confined to the assessment of that challenge and opportunities of good governance. This study focused on the assessment of the challenges of good governance in Shabe Sombo woreda selected public sector in Jimma zone of oromia region. The study will undertook different stockholders such as Shabe Sombo woreda cabinets, focus on selected different sector employees and public sector stockholders. Therefore, any term found in the study will interpret in relation to good governance in Shabe Sombo woreda.
1.7 Limitation of the study
As the concept of governance is multidimensional that includes social, economic and
political aspects; it is difficult to draw inferences from political and administrative
dimension, hence this study gives more emphasis to the political and institutional
dimensions even though they are not mutually exclusive .There are various factors that influenced and affected the research. Among these, some of the respondents are unwilling to give reliable and valid data especially about their personal information .Some of the respondent in the woreda and administration departments may refuse to give information and turn back interview guides.
? The officials of the woreda cannot be obtained by the reason of close meeting.
? Respondents may fear to tell the reality due to the political nature of the case.
? Financial constraint during collecting sufficient data from extended number of sample respondent, time and social constraints for data gathering and analysis.
? The overlap of work and interruption of study because of government work and social problems.
1.8 Operational definitions of key terms
In some circumstance a word may carry, different meanings and the term that will use repeatedly in this study explained as follow:
Leaders: defined as woreda level leaders having legitimate power. In addition, Keble administrators having with legitimate power. Legitimate power comes from having a position of power in an organization, such as being the boss or a key member of a leadership team. Social hierarchies, cultural norms, and organizational structure all provide the basis for legitimate power.
Politics: it is about decision and it occurs in public space. It refers to ministers and cabinets, parliaments, councils; it means parties and pressure groups, civil services and courts (Philipos,1991)
Governance: – refers to the process of decision making and the process by which decisions areimplemented or not implemented “administrative authority in the management of countries affairs at all level. The way “power is exercised through a country’s economic, political, and social institution” the World Bank’s PRSP Handbook .Governance comprises the complex mechanisms, processes and institutions, through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, mediate their differences and exercise their legal rights and obligations.
Good governance: is the process and institutions produce results that meet the need of the
society, while making the best use of resources at their disposal. It also defined as the rule of the rulers typically within given set of rules. It is “among other things participatory, transparent and accountable. It is also effective and equitable which promotes rule of law” (UNDP)
Affects: – Influence some things that contribute to or have an influence on the outcome of same
thing(MicrosoftEncarta,2009)
performance: carry out or fulfill same thing: to put same thing in to effect or action lived.
Sustainability: – Encarta dictionary, (2009) define sustainable capable of sustained and sustain
means, lengthen or extend duration or space, prolong or keep in the good work. The definition
adapted by FAO (1988), sustainably development in the management and government of the
natural resource base and the orientation of technological and institutional change in such a
manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for present and
future generations such sustainable development of society in governance related factor

CHAPTER- TWO

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