FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND HUMANITIES center11747500 ESEB3044 RESEARCH METHOD IN EDUCATION center48196500″Research Proposal” NAME

FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND HUMANITIES
center11747500
ESEB3044
RESEARCH METHOD IN EDUCATION
center48196500″Research Proposal”
NAME: NUR HANISAH BINTI MOHAMAD AZAM
MATRIC NUMBER: MC161002960
SECTION: 2
PREPARED FOR: SITI FARHANA MD YASIN
SUBMISSION DATE:
WEEK 11
TABLE OF CONTENT
CONTENTPAGE
CHAPTER 1
1.1Introduction3
1.2Problem Statement 3
1.3Research Objective4
1.4Significance of Study 4
1.5Conceptual Framework41.6Definition of Terms5
CHAPTER 2
2.1 Introduction6
2.2 Theoretical model 6
2.3 Student’s engagement6
2.4 Academic performance8
2.5 The relationship between IV and DV8
CHAPTER 3
3.1Introduction103.2Research Design103.3Location of Study103.4Sample of Study103.5Instrument of Study11
3.6Data Collection11
3.7Data Analysis11
REFERENCES12
APPENDIX14 CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION1.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the background of the study. It also highlights some issues regarding the student’s engagement and academic performance among students. In this research, we will discuss the relationship between student’s engagement and academic performance. Besides, this chapter also provides the research problems, research objectives, research questions, significance of the study and the definition of terms.1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT According to Shelley Wright said that, the majority of our students are not engaged in their day to day learning. Depending on the survey, anywhere from 50 to almost 70% of our grade 10 to 12 students are not engaged in their learning. Moreover, research shows that the longer our students are in school, the less academically competent the feel (Covington ; Dray, 2001) — even students who are considered “successful” in our current system experience this problem. The issue of poor class attendance and classroom participation rate in higher institutions of learning has been and is still a major concern for educators all over the world. This is because most educators basically belief that an above average attendance and classroom participation rate would enhance student academic performance in the particular course. Absenteeism is common across university classes. Some of the reasons are illness, tiredness, lack of interest and motivation. A major reason for student absenteeism might be the availability of online material, access to PowerPoint presentations and YouTube. Consequently, the issue raises has impact on student learning as it used to do before the recent technological advances. Attending classes not only allow students to obtain information that is not contained in textbooks or lecture materials presented online but also allow students varied contact with materials such as lectures, review of notes, demonstrations and so on. When the students are absent, they will also not be able to participate in class activities for the next class. This study therefore aim to provide an empirical evidence the relationship between student’s engagement (class attendance and classroom participation) and academic performance.Research Questions
1.What is the relationship between class attendance and academic performance?2.What is the relationship between classroom participation and academic performance?1.3RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1.To examine the relationship between class attendance and academic performance.

2.To identify the relationship between classroom participation and academic performance.

1.4SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
right236664500 The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between student’s engagement and academic performance among students in higher institution. We will discuss on the student’s engagement which are class attendance and classroom participation. It will also determine the influence of class attendance and classroom participation in academic performance among students through examination. This finding of this study will be useful to the educators in encouraging student to attend and participate in class to get higher score and excellent in academic performance. 1.5CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
10287006985Alexander Astin’s Theory of Involvement
00Alexander Astin’s Theory of Involvement
3705225532130Dependent Variable
00Dependent Variable
771525551180Independent Variable
00Independent Variable
38195251398905Academic Performance
00Academic Performance
2952750165481002762251090930Student’s Engagement
Class Attendance
Classroom participation
00Student’s Engagement
Class Attendance
Classroom participation

1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMStudent engagement also refers to a “student’s willingness, need, desire and compulsion to participate in, and be successful in, the learning process.” (Adam Fletcher)Class attendance defined student’s attendance is measured by the number of days the student is in attendance at the university and the number of days absent.Classroom participation refer to the extent to which students participate or involve themselves in class. (Wikipedia)Academic performance refer to the extent to which a student has achieved their short or long-term educational goals through examination and test. (Wikipedia)

CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, there will be an explanation about the literature review of this study. This is including explaining the theoretical model, the concepts of the study, independent variables, dependent variables and relationship between the variables. After that, this chapter also will propose the conceptual model of the study and several hypotheses will be constructed.2.2 THEORETICAL MODELAlexander Astin’s Theory of Involvement Astin (1984) said that when students are involved in both academic and social aspects of the college experience, they will get more out of the studies. Students who are involved more towards academic, spend time on campus (class attendance), participate actively in classroom, student organization and activities and interact often with the faculty. However, students with little or no involvement in class or college activities tend to neglect their studies, spend little time on campus, abstain from extracurricular activities and rarely initiate contact with faculty or other students. The most persuasive types of involvement are “academic involvement, involvement with faculty and involvement with student peer groups”. Astin also focuses on external (behavioural) involvement but, at the same time, admits there is also internal (motivation) involvement. This theory can be utilized by both researchers and administrators to enhance student learning and performance in higher education.2.3 Student’s engagement Student’s engagement as a concept has various definitions. Kuh (2003) defines student’s engagement in terms of the amount of time and drive students dedicate to academic and non-academic undertakings as well as the practices institutions use to persuade students to take part in extracurricular activities. Similarly, Harper and Quaye (2009) operationally define student engagement in terms of participation education related practices within and without the classroom with the attendant measureable outcomes. Finn & Zimmer (2012) opinions that student’s engagement is a psychological process of encompassing investment, interest, attention and student’s effort in learning. In order words, student’s engagement is not only a measure of the extent of their academic and non-academic participation but also the extent to which students identify with and value the goals of schooling. Axelson and Flick (2011) also noted that student engagement level at an institution is seen as an effective indicator of institutional merit that is more meaningful than modern education. In other words, the college impact is mainly determined by the student effort and involvement in academic and non-acdemic activities (Pascarella and Terenzini,2005). Pascarella and Terenzini (2005) find some evidence linking college completion to motivation, student’s engagement and academic preparation. Conversely, some studies suggest that when students are only marginally committed to their institutions, the more likely are they to leave the institution, either to continue their education elsewhere or depart higher education altogether. That is, student success is post-secondary depend partly on anumber of educational, sociocultural and economic factors. Specifically, student success is related to academic attainament, engagement in education enhancing activities, acquisition of relevant competencies, skill and knowledge among others. 2.3.1 Class Participation
Participation inside and outside the classroom has been considered an importance predictor of learning outcomes from a college education. Strauss and Volkwein (2004) in particular argued hat classroom experience such as the degree of intellectual stimulation in class and enjoyment of the classroom experience are strong predictors for commitment to college, as are relationships with classmates both inside and outside classroom. The classroom activities also affect cognitive skills such as communication skills and higher-order thinking skills. Then, it assumes that class participation directly influences learning outcomes.2.3.2 Class Attendance Researcher evaluated student attendance differently in different studies. In all studies, the researcher examined days absent and days present. Studies that included college students enrolled in college level classes examined individual student attendance across one semester. The studies did not examine reason for the student absences but rather whether the student was present or absent in the college class.

2.4 Academic performance Academic performance is defined as the extent to which students are achieving their education goals and it is often measured by assessment. The term academic achievement refers to the degree or the level of success attained especially in an academic performance, in this sense, academic achievement means attained ability to perform school tasks in a given subject matter. It is also regarded as the display of knowledge attained or skill developed in the academic subject. Academic performance as knowledge skill drawn up in the school subject designed by test score or marks assigned by the teacher. According to Joshi and Srivastava (2009) academic performance is considered as a key criterion to judge one’s total potentialities and capabilities. Therefore, it is more pressing for students to have high academic performance and it also indicate the learning outcomes of the students. 2.5 The relationship between student’s engagement and academic performance Students who are attend higher education institutions are expected to be academically and behaviourally engaged and perform well in assessment activities. According to Bell (2012), educational institutions often determine their success in term of their student’s academic performance. The degree of student learning and academic success often depends on how students make use of available academic resources, attend the class and also participation during learning and teaching process. The full attendance of the student and how they participate in the class activities influence their academic performance. Effective learning is also associated with academic performance as measured by test and examinations marks. Academic performance is measured by assessment activities that lecturers use to aid the learning of students. Semester test and final examination are generally used to assess the performance of the students at a given time. A test or examination refers to a formal, systematic procedure in which a sample of student’s performance is scored. Therefore, propose that the more students are engaged in learning activities ( by attending class regularly, active in class participation and successfully completing homework assignment) the better they will perform in the test and as a result in the final examinations. The converse is also believed to be true. For the purposes of the present study, academic and behavioural engagement was investigated. Academic engagement was assessed by the marks students achieved on assignment and quiz. Their class attendance was monitored at every class and used as a measure of behavioural engagement. Class attendance is intuitively regarded as an important contributor to academic success. According Allen (2010) Several studies have investigated the relationship between student’s engagement in class (class attendance and class participation) and academic performance at university with the common conclusion that have a positive relationship exists between these two construct.

CHAPTER 3 : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1 INTRODUCTION The previous chapter has discussed on the literature review within this study including the underpinning theory, the variables and also hypothesis that need to be tested. This chapter will provides a detailed description on the research design, target population and the sampling technique, research instruments, measurement of variables, data collection procedure, method of analysis and the pilot study.3.2 RESEARCH DESIGNResearch design refer to the set of advance decisions that make up the master plan specifying the methods and procedure for collecting and analysing the needed information for the study. In this study, we chose quantitative method which is survey questionnaire and record for class attendance and classroom participation. Quantitative research is a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain the information about the study. This research method is used to describe variables, examine relationships among variables and determine cause and effect interaction between variables. The purpose of this quantitative, non-experimental study was to investigate the relationship between student’s engagement and academic performance as measured by class attendance, classroom participation and the result for academic performance. The study conduct in Unitar International University which involve new student from foundation programme in first semester.

3.3 LOCATION OF STUDYThe study is conduct at UNITAR International University. The centre was located at 3-01A, Level 2, Tierra Crest, Jalan SS6/3, Kelana Jaya, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor.

3.4 SAMPLE OF STUDYThe total target population were 75 subjects in three separate classes for foundation students in Unitar International University. Most of them were new students in first semester whose age from 18 years old.
3.5 INSTRUMENT OF STUDYClass attendance recordThe instructor prepare a book to record the student’s attendance and give it to the lecturer. It include the number of days the student enter class at the university and the number of days absent. The duration to measure class attendance is one semester (3 months) for new foundation’s student. It involve three separate classes for foundation’s student in Unitar. Survey Questionnaire Before class start, the instructor gave all the participants a survey questionnaire that asked demographic background information and personal classroom participation in the institutions. The first part included name, gender, age and year in university. Another section in this survey related to the subtopic of this study which is classroom participation.Student’s academic performance record The instructor ask permission from the registrar’s office at the institution to get the data of the student’s academic performance in first semester for new foundation’s students. Data from student’s record include their academic background and result final examination and also demographic information.

3.6 DATA COLLECTIONThe data will collect based on the instrument of the study which are student’s attendance record, survey questionnaire on classroom participation and student’s academic performance record. First, student’s attendance record are obtained from the homeroom teacher. The researcher will measure by the number of days the student is in attendance at the university and the number of days absent. In addition, result of classroom participation is based on the answer of survey questionnaire by each of the students. The instructor will collect all the questionnaire after the student finish answer the questions. Furthermore, student’s academic performance records are obtained from the registrar’s office at the institution. Data from student’s record include their academic background and result final examination and also demographic information.3.7 DATA ANALYSIS The researcher will use descriptive and inferential statistics to analyze the data collection. The researcher used the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version to analyze the data set. Multiple linear regression, a statistical method where dependent variables are predicted using one or more independent variables will utilize to answer the research question presented.

REFERENCES1. The Problem of Student Engagement. (2013, January 11). Retrieved from https://shelleywright.wordpress.com/2013/01/11/the-problem-of-student-engagement/2. Defining Student Engagement: A Literature Review. (2018, April 19). Retrieved from https://soundout.org/defining-student-engagement-a-literature-review/3. Kuh, G. D. (2003). What we’re learning about student engagement from NSSE: Benchmarks for effective educational practices. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 35(2), 24-32.4. Finn, J. D., & Zimmer, K. S. (2012). Student engagement: What is it? Why does it matter?.In Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 97-131). Springer US.

5. Axelson, R., & Flick, A. (2011). Defining Student Engagement: The Magazine of HigherLearning, 43: 1, 38-43.6. Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students (Vol. 2). K. A. Feldman(Ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

7. Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students: A third decade of
research (Vol. 2).8. Bell M (2012) Define academic performance. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/about_4740750_define-academic-performance.html.9. Allen D & D Webber (2010) Attendance and exam performance at university: A case study on Research in Post-Compulsory Education 15(1):33-47.10. Joshi, S., & Srivastava, R. (2009). Self-esteem and academic achievement of
adolescents. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 35, 33-39.11. Strauss, L., & Volkwein, J. (2004). Predictors of student commitment at two-year and four-year institution. Journal of Higher Education,75(2), 203–227.12. Astin. A.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.13. Charles William (2014) Service Quality As A Predictor for Academic Engagement, Academic Performance and Student Satisfaction (Appendix : Survey Questionnaire of Student’s Engagement), 131-146

APENDIX

EXAMPLE OF SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE OF CLASSROOM PARTICIPATION BASED ON THE ABOVE JOURNALPhysical engagement
1. I work with intensity on my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree
2. I exert my full effort to my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree
3. I devote a lot of energy to my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree
4. I try my hardest to perform well on my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree
5. I strive as hard as I can to complete my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree
6. I exert a lot of energy on my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree Emotional engagement
1. I am enthusiastic in my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree
2. I feel energetic at my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree
3. I am interested in my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree
4. I am proud of my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree
5. I feel positive about my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree
6. I am excited about my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree
Cognitive engagement
1. At class, my mind is focused on my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree
2. At class, I pay a lot of attention to my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree 3. At class, I focus a great deal of attention on my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree
4. At class, I am absorbed by my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree
5. At class, I concentrate on my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree
6. At class, I devote a lot of attention to my class work
(5) Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Undecided (2) Disagree (1) Strongly Disagree