Empire is an political unit that brings different people together under the control of one ruler. All Empires influenced the world around them, some nations are still stick to empires culture. Environment helped shaping human beliefs. There were two locations that first empires were discovered and they are “Mesopotamia” and “Egypt”. And the most empires that influenced the world are Roman and Arab empires, especially in the term of religion and architecture. The four main dynamics that make an empire are Environment, Society, Economy and Politics. This essay will describe the huge difference between empires that are developed in between 500 BCE – 500 CE and 1400 – 1700 CE in many factors, as there concepts and institutions.
Both empires timings had impact to shape the world we know today. They were similar and different in some concepts. Firstly, 500 BCE – 500 CE included many empires which were called Eurasian Empires and they were Roman, Greek, Persian, Chinese and India.
Firstly, the Persian empire an empire in Southern Asia (Iran) created by Cyrus the Great. The empire was the largest and greatest empire. The imperial system drew on Mesopotamia prototypes. Secondly, Greek empire where Indo-Europeans. Byzantine empire was the name of roman empire during the middle ages. The third Roman Empire is well known empire and important period of the history. The Rome territory from the Atlantic coastline in Asia. It took over 60 million people, 1/5 of the world population that time. The fourth empire was the (Qin and Han) which was located between the two dynasties, the Qin stressed more of a central government, where the Han expanded the powers of the bureaucracy. They were developed at 400 B.C.E and lasted until 202 B.C.E. The last empire was the Mauryan empire which is founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 326 B.C.E in northern India. The Gupta empire was also located in India approximately from 320 B.C.E., it was founded by Sri Gupta. The territory period was called Golden Age of India because the peace and harmony that was in that period. Both Empires (Mauryan and Gupta) where in India.
Those empires had common facts that they shared in many common perspective as political, society and intellectual. The expansion of empires provided political stability and society unity during that time, the cultural diffusion increased. The spread of religion helped the empires to be stabile politically more stable. Each terotiary had adopted a religion. Plus, they all had kings and emperors Moreover, there were many local governments but the caste system which is founded in India, the social class as Karl Marx theory, this system regulated life without the need of central government. The laws wasn’t good but the leaders were. Moving on to economic category, the economy in some of those empires were based mostly on agriculture. In Mauryan, people were getting married for economic stability. But in Persian their economy was based on agriculture also, but gold, silver and the exchanges of goods and commodities with far empires as India and Greek, were also some of the activities which helped to rise the economy in that time. ¬¬¬China had believed in the trade concept while Han Dynasty ruling period. Silk, jewelry and leathers ware the basic commodities that were exported to other regions. Greek also was based on agriculture, but because of the wars they head for slavery to grow the lands for them. The Roman empire trade routes were both in sea and lands. They also rely on agriculture. Each empire had different architecture that may still be there now. For instance, Greek had three types of architecture and they are (Doric, Iconic and Corinthian). The Parthenon building is a good example to describe their architecture, which aimed to be built to show the world there wealth. The Roman architecture had followed the Greek style. Persia architecture included art and calligraphy. The Mauryan adopted buddhas architecture. China Empire had colorful buildings, influenced by Daoism and Confucianism.
In 1400 to 1700 C.E the empires were completely different that the five empires that were in 500 B.CE – 500 B.C . The empires that goes under the 1400 – 1700 C.E period are many but those are examples: Hittite, Western Europe, Othman empire, Mongol. Territories that were discovered in 14th century had many common characteristics other than the date of development. Each empire had different political ideas.
Hittites were occupied the ancient region of Anatolia. There kings and queens shared power, they had gender equality. Economy was based on fair trade (gold, silver and copper). Their main religion was the sun worship. They were famous in their skill of building. Moreover, the Empires that were under the Western Europe were many as the Spanish and Portuguese empire. Many European nations had a Monarchy government ( A monarchy means that the king is the head of authority. Christianity was there main religion, it was based on the teaching of the Bible of Jesus. There economic were based on fur trade in Latin America, slave trade, and silver in Spanish colonies. There society made women at that time as slaves, they were under men supervision. Moving to their architecture and art, Shakespeare were a famous writer, he were important at that time for the theater and plays to entertain people. Greek Architecture inspired them, so all there architecture were at the Greek style. Plus, the ottoman Empire was created by Turkish tribes, they grew to be one of the most powerful nations. They believed that leadership was divine right. The sultan was the leader of the great nation. They had economic strength that were based on agriculture, gold and silver. The main religion was Islam. Ottoman empire architecture were based on Arabic calligraphy in mosques, paintings and plates. The Mongols were also developed at that time, they are a member of Central Asian Ethnographic group of Mongolian Plateau (India). Most of India was politically under Mongols. Akbar was the emperor which was Muslim .There economic was based on taxes that they take from non-Muslims, as a result non-Muslims lived in poverty. They created a trading route from India to Europe to exchange goods. Hindu was the religion of the majority population (80%), the twenty percent were the ruling family and the rest of population they were Muslims. Their society wanted to make Muslims and Hindu work together. Their art were influenced by Western Europe. All those empires had many different characteristics but they all had one similar thing and it is in the economy side, they all had to exchange goods and they were based on the gold and silver.
The empires that were discovered at fourteen century was influenced by the one that were developed at 500 B.C.E in many sides as the Mongols architecture that were based on Greek art. Moreover, There are many differences between the empires in 500 B.C.E and 14 century. The one them were on 500’s all of them their economy relayed on agriculture, but the ones that are in fourteen century were all based on gold and silver.
All empires had big influence of who we are today. We red there history and learned from it and tried to get over their challenges and learn from their errors.