CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1Acknowledging
The manoeuvring study steering characteristics of vessels with forward speed and the respond the standard manoeuvrability which is should be uses to evaluate the manoeuvring performance of ship and to assist those responsible for the design, construction, repair and operation of ships. Maneuverability is an important quality of marine vehicles. It should be controlled during various design stages and at the end of building the vessels. It has influences on efficiency and safety of marine transportation system. Manoeuvring of a marine vehicle is judged based on its course keeping, course changing and speed changing abilities. International Maritime Organization (IMO) recommends criteria to investigate ship (IMO, 2002a).

The test to be made is stopping ability and turning ability. This characteristics involved manoeuvring forces which is sway, surge, and yaw. This three manoeuvring characteristics is very important because to know how it able follow the criteria IMO standards. The manoeuvrability of the ship is considered satisfactory in the Standard if the following criteria are complied with. There are several states of problem statements was faced by this research. In addition, there also lists of research objective for this research. Scope and significance of this research provided in this introduction chapter.

1.2Problem Statement
USV-RIB is kind of boat that moves by remote control. This technologies able to control gear, throttle, and steering. Moreover, this USV-RIB able to turns and moves forward or reverse. This boat not ready to test the manoeuvre followed the criteria of IMO Standards. Therefore, the all criteria is important to be study because IMO Standards addressed its guideline and procedure of manoeuvrability ships for safety manoeuvre. Lastly, the method used in this research is relevant and comply with the IMO Standard Manoeuvrability or nor, so that this is show how to conduct and evaluate manoeuvring test of USV-RIB on calm water.
1.3Research Question
In this research, the research questions are:

Why IMO Standard Manoeuvrability related with this research?
Why choose USV-RIB for this research?
Why this manoeuvring test for USV-RIB need to carried out?
1.4Research Aim
In this research, the research aim is:

To comply USV-RIB with the IMO Manoeuvrability Standard for small vessels.

1.5Research Objective
In this research, the research objectives are:

To study the requirement of IMO manoeuvring criteria for small vessels.

To conduct the manoeuvring test for USV-RIB.

To evaluate the manoeuvring test for USV-RIB.

1.6Scope of the Research
Using RIB boat which length of overall is 3.2 metres
Using outboard motor (OBM) engine 30 horsepower
The test will conduct at calm water, UPNM Lake
IMO manoeuvring criteria for small boat as a guideline of manoeuvring test
1.7Significance of Research
Stopping ability and turning ability are several characteristics of manoeuvring test. But, this all ability must comply the guideline and procedure of IMO Standards. In this situations, when improving ship manoeuvrability as means for increasing ship controllability and safety. Controllability and safety is very important custody in the IMO Standards Manoeuvrability. Therefore, when we apply the controllability and safety in the manoeuvre, we can achieve the understanding the importance of the manoeuvring ship.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1Introduction
Literature and theory on these studies are very important for researchers as an overall picture of the aspects to be investigated and resolve of questions that have been raised by this research. In here, this research wants to explain in this chapter more deeply about manoeuvring small vessel on the water. This chapter contains the general IMO Standards Manoeuvrability and its criteria. Stopping Ability and Turning Ability are more pressed in this chapter. In addition, this chapter also explain the equipment and apparatus in how to conduct the test. Tables and picture will become a source of reference to better understand in this chapter.
2.2IMO Standards for Manoeuvre
The IMO standards for manoeuvre is to evaluate the manoeuvring performance of ships and to assist those responsible for the design, construction, repair and operation of ships. The standards are based on the understanding that the manoeuvring of ships can be evaluated from the characteristics of conventional trial manoeuvres (M.2002). Therefore, the Standards and methods for establishing compliance may be periodically reviewed and Organization will updated, as appropriate, taking into account new research, technologies, development and results of experience with the present Standards. The “manoeuvring characteristics” addressed by the IMO Standards for ship manoeuvrability are typical measures of performance quality and handling ability that are of direct nautical interest (A.B. 2006). Each can now be reasonably well predicted at the design stage and measured or evaluated from standard trial-type manoeuvres or tests. The six significant qualities for the evaluation of ship manoeuvring characteristics but in this research, there are consist:
Stopping Ability
Turning Ability
2.2.1Stopping Ability
The stopping ability that had been addressed in IMO is the “track reach” and “time to dead in water” realised in a stop engine-full astern manoeuvre performed after a steady approach at the position full test speed (John C. Daidola, 2002). This means the ship must manoeuvre astern at certain speed along track and stops boat at stopping line while that take time to measure the ship really stop and dead in water. Full astern stopping test determines the track reach of a ship from the time an order for full astern is given until the ship stops in the water. Track reach is the distance along the path described by the midship point of a ship measured from the position that ship starts to the position at which the ship stops in the water. Figure 2.1 is shows the stopping ability movement.

Figure 2.1: Stopping Ability
(Source: John C. Daidola, 2002)
2.2.2Turning Ability
In IMO standards, turning circle manoeuvre which is manoeuvre to be performed to both starboard and port with 35° rudder angle or the maximum rudder angle permissible at the test speed, following a steady approach with zero yaw rate (John C. Daidola, 2002). Advance is the distance travelled in the direction of the original course by the midship point of a ship from the position at which the rudder order is given to the position at which the heading has changed 90° from the original course (John C. Daidola, 2002). While the tactical diameter is the distance travelled by the midship point of a ship from the position at which the rudder order is given to the position at which the heading has changed 180° from the original course (John C. Daidola, 2002). It is measured in a direction perpendicular to the original heading of the ship. Figure 2.2 is shows the turning ability movement.

Figure 2.2: Turning Ability
(Source: google image)
2.2.3Criteria Manoeuvre
IMO enforced minimum manoeuvrability criteria to ensure safety of all seagoing ships. These criteria are listed in Table 2.1.

Stopping ability: the track reach in the full astern stopping test should not exceed 15 ship lengths (IMO 2002). Figure 2.1 shows the stopping ability.

Turning ability: the advance should not exceed 4.5 ship lengths (L) and the tactical diameter should not exceed 5 ship lengths in the turning circle manoeuvre (IMO 2002). Figure 2.2 shows the turning ability.

Table 2.1: List of Criteria IMO Standard Manoeuvrability
Turning ability:
Turning test with maximum rudder angle (35°)
Advance <4.5 L
Tactical diameter <5.0 L Stopping ability:
Stopping test with full astern
Track reach <15 L
2.3RIB Boat
The smallest and light in weight with high performance and capacity solid boat, shaped hull and flexible tubes at the gunwale is called as Rigid Inflatable Boat (Wikipedia). The engine that uses in this boat is Outboard Motor (OBM) engine. This engine enable powered up to 30 horsepower and can speed up about 23 knots. Length of overall of this boat is 3.2 metres and length of beam is 1.51 metres. This boat designed as complete with tube surrounding the boat which is tube diameter is 0.42 metres. This boat also is highly in qualities of safety, strength, stability, speed, and comfort. A beautiful roof has covers more than half of sheer of body RIB boat and painted with patterned navy blue stripes. The RIB boat can lift about 3 or 4 crew on it without roofs. But in this research, this RIB boat is modify for without crew. Because of that, this boat is placed ballast weights that weigh around 120 kg at ahead to balance the boat while manoeuvre on water while actual weight is 150 kg solid without any equipment. Maximum load is about 500kg. This RIB boat is perfectly complete objects to achieve the goals of research. Figure 2.3 shows the RIB that researcher uses. Table 2.2 shows the specification of RIB boats.

Figure 2.3: The RIB
Table 2.2: Table shows the specification of RIB boats.

Horsepower (hp) Speed (knots) Length of overall (LOA) Length of beam (LOB) Tube size Weight (kg)
min max
30 23 3.2 m 1.51 m 0.42 m 150 500
(Source: Wikipedia)
2.4USV (Unmanned Surface Vehicle)
Unmanned is defined as a vehicle capable of unmanned operation and can be manned for duel use or Test and Evaluation (T&E) with varying degrees of autonomy. While surface vehicle is displaces water at rest and operates with near continuous contact with the surface of the water (USV Master Plan, 2017). The use of USVs for tasks such as shallow-water surveying, weapon delivery, environmental data gathering, surveillance, anti-submarine warfare, bottom of sea investigation, mine search and other else. But in this research, this operates to manoeuvre the RIB boat without crew. The major controller is control the speed, turning, and gear of boat. The sub-controller can show the video on that which is it connected with the camera on the boat. Mission planner is an advanced ground station to program autonomous waypoints flight based on Google Map for creating superior footage. This can define maximum 99 waypoints in conjunction with multiple shooting targets in a continuous comprehensive flight plan. With aid of powerful Auto-Tilt gimbal control, it always keeps the targets right at the center of your footage even with some very difficult footage (Manual Book of Devention F12E, 2017). Mission planner guides you through the setup of autonomous waypoints flight step-by-step. Figure 2.5 shows the USV that combine with RIB.

Figure 2.4: USV- RIB
2.5The Control System Derives
In this operating system, there are 3 component that are closely interlink component which are remote control, USV-RIB, and mission planner.
While that, there are 2 method operating system which are remote control to USV-RIB and mission planner to USV-RIB. First is remote control to USV-RIB. Remote control is stay connected with the control box in the USV-RIB. The remote control connect to control box which is to give an order such as to accelerate, reverse and turning while the control box is contain all the electric component to provide the movement of the USV-RIB which is the function to control the USV such as control throttle for speed, rudder and change of gear. Next, the mission planner to USV-RIB. The mission planner is component that to set at the software to guide and check manoeuvrability of boat. Therefore, mission planner can gives order to manoeuvre the boat by sets up the waypoint so that the boat will manoeuvre follow the tracks. The figure 2.5 is shows the operating system on USV-RIB.
4276725342265MISSION PLANNER
00MISSION PLANNER
220979920891500
931545233045REMOTE CONTROL
00REMOTE CONTROL

3322320187325
158877043053100
2484120181610USV-RIB
00USV-RIB

Figure 2.5: The Operating System on USV-RIB
2.6The Theory Manoeuvre Dynamics 3 DOF
There are two coordinate systems accepted in this research, one is fixed to the Earth (X0O0Y0) and another is attached to the vessel (XOY). Both systems of coordinates are shown in Figure 2.7. Despite the fact that a vessel, like any other body, has six degrees of freedom, consideration of only three of them is generally enough for solving most manoeuvrability problems. All the motions are assumed to be in the horizontal plane, so that only surge, sway and yaw are further considered A.B. 2016:
m ? ? vr ? xcg r2 = X + XRd …………………………………….. 1 m ? + ur + xcg r2 = Y + YRd ………………………………………. 2 Iz ? + m xcg ? + ur = N + NRd ……………………………………… 3
Where:
X = sum of all forces acting on the hull in ship-fixed abscissa axis or
surge or axial forces Y = sum of all forces acting on the hull in ship-fixed ordinate axis or
sway forces N = sum of all moments acting on the hull in horizontal plane or yaw
moments XRd , YRd and NRd are corresponding rudder forces and moment. u = surge or axial component of instantaneous speed ? = surge or axial acceleration v = sway velocity ? = sway acceleration r = yaw rate or yaw angular velocity ? = yaw acceleration m = vessel mass Iz = mass moment of inertia of a vessel relative to vertical axis Xcg = abscissa of the center of gravity
These equations are obtained by application of Newton’s second law in a ship-fixed coordinate system. The symbols X, Y and N on the right-hand side are the sum of all forces (or moments) acting in the corresponding direction, while the left-hand part of the equations express the inertia, being essentially mass (or moment of inertia in case of yaw) times acceleration terms.

Figure 2.6: Earth fixed and body fixed coordinate (source: google image)
2.7Review the Previous Researches

First research that title of name is Identification of Four-DOF Dynamics of RIB using Sea Trial Tests (1) – Sea Trial Test, Resistance and Propulsion. This research was introduced by three Korean people that named Hyeon Kyu Yoon where from Changwon National University, while another one is In-Hong Park where from GIMB Inc. This research was published on February 2011. In this research, sea trial test results of a 7-meter RIB such as speed, turning, zig-zag, and way point control tests were represented and its resistance and propulsion model was identified by using sea trial data and Savitsky’s formula (H.K.Y. 2011). In addition, the state space model which will be used in the identification of the four-degree-of-freedom dynamics in the next step was formulated and the identification procedure was proposed (H.K.Y. 2011).
Second research is modelling and simulation of the 6-DOF Motion of a High Speed Planning Hull Running in Calm Sea (N.M. 2016). This research was introduced by two people Korean people that named Hyeon Kyu Yoon where from School of Industrial and Naval Architecture, Changwon National University and Namseon Kang where from Research Institute of Medium & Small Shipbuilding. This research published on February 2016.
This process started when a planning hull straight runs and turns, its floating position and pitch angle are changed depending on its speed, and large transient motion happens. In this research, six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) equations of motion, which could simulate the motion of a planning hull, are established. Static and dynamic forces in vertical plane are modelled using pre-calculated displacements and metacentric heights depending on various draft, lift under bottom, and vertical damping coefficients which are used to tune the final motion (N.M. 2016). Hydrodynamic coefficients in horizontal plane at various equilibrium state are calculated by using Lewandowski’s empirical formula and the speed-dependent equilibrium state are calculated beforehand by Savitsky’s formula. The speed effects are considered by curve-fitting the coefficients at various speed to the polynomials. Accelerating, decelerating and backing, turning, and zig-zag are simulated and compared with the sea trial results, and it is confirmed that the speed reduction, roll, and pitch during such manoeuvres of sea trial and simulation are well consistent (N.M. 2016).

Third review research is Control-Oriented Planar Motion Modelling of Unmanned Surface Vehicle. This research introduced by group of people that named C. Sonnenburg, etc. This research was from Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University Blacksburg. This research published on September 2010. The dynamic modelling which beginning from a nonlinear three degree of freedom planar motion model, with force and moment inputs, so it make several simplifying assumptions to obtain low order models suitable for identification from experimental data (C.A. 2010).
The researcher uses notation and reference frames, nonlinear planar model, linear model that separate to the speed dynamics, linearized steering dynamics, nomoto’s steering models, and last one is low-speed nonlinear model. Next step is model identification. This proceeds in two steps which first, determine the steady-state relationship between inputs and outputs from open-loop manoeuvres while second is to identify the parameters that govern transient behaviour (C.A. 2010). They uses Simulink along with PID compensator with Matlab implementation of the Nelder- Mead simplex method. This is for the feedback controlled USV. The results for USV-RIB for the forward speed is rise and a little fall, sideslip angle is continuously fall while turn rate is increase. Conclusion, when the more the steering angle and throttle, the more the result that you observed.
Fourth research is Straight-Line Target Tracking for Unmanned Surface Vehicles. This research was introduced by Morten Breivik from Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Vegard E. Hovstein from Maritime Robotics and Thor I. Fossen from Department of Engineering Cybernetics, Norweign University of Science and Technology. This research was published on 2008. This research was introduced some fundamental motion control concepts, including operating spaces, vehicle actuation properties, motion control scenarios, as well as the motion control hierarchy (M.B. 2008). The material is adapted from (Breivik and Fossen, 2008). Then, motion control system design which guidance system which is separated to the Line of Sight Guidance (LOS), Pure Pursuit Guidance (PP) and Constant Bearing Guidance (CB) (M.B. 2008). Next, velocity control system, modelling considerations, manoeuvrability and agility, surge speed controller, yaw rate controller and total motion control system (M.B. 2008).
The results is the USV is manoeuvring onto an intercept course with the target then distance to the target initially increases until USV begins to move in the target direction and then finally converges smoothly to zero (M.B. 2008). Conclusion, this research represents a first step toward the development of new motion control system that take advantages of the manoeuvring abilities of small and high powered USV’s.

Last research is Modelling, Identification and Control of an Unmanned Surface Vehicle by Christian R. Sonnenburg, assisted by Craig A. Woolsey. This research was published on December 7th 2012 at Blacksburg, Virginia. This research is same the before research in 2010. But in this research, it make a change which is to model, identify, and control of all kind of USV’s. They limit the number of model parameters which is only first order acceleration terms are included, the vessel has port to starboard symmetry and velocity and acceleration coupling is neglected (C.A. 2012). Installation and development of the autonomy package. Different with previous research is kinematics, nonlinear 6 DOF Dynamics, Planar Kinematics, Actuation, Simplified Vessel Dynamics (Quadratic Drag Speed Model and Linear Drag Speed Model), and linear Steering Dynamics (considering Sternward Steering Behaviour) (C.A. 2012). Conclusion, due to the absence of flow measuring devices and appropriate environments with fluid flow, simulations instead of field experiments confirm the control law’s stability. Table 2.7 shows the conclusion of all researches from my investigating.

Table 2.3: The review researches that same with my research.

No Research Topic Author Year Published Method Simulation Experiment
1 Identificationof Four-DOF Dynamics of RIB using Sea Trial Tests(1) – Sea Trial Test, Resistance and Propulsion Model
Hyeon Kyu Yoon,
In-Hong Park 2011 sea trial data and Savitsky’s formula ?
2 Modelling and Simulation of the 6 DOF Motion of a high Speed Planning Hull Running in Calm Sea
Hyeon Kyu Yoon, Namseon Kang 2016 sea trial data and Savitsky’s formula with Lewandowski’s empirical formula ?
?
3 Control-Oriented Planar Motion Modelling Of Unmanned Surface Vehicle C. SonnenburgA. Gadre and etc.

2010 Dynamics modelling, notation and reference frames, nonlinear model and model identification ?

4 Straight-Line Target Tracking for Unmanned Surface Vehicles Morten Breivik,
Thor I. Fossen2008 Motion control, motion control design, and mathematical model
?
5 Modelling, Identification and Control of an Unmanned Surface Vehicle Christian R.Sonnenburg,
Craig
2012 Dynamics modelling, notation and reference frames, nonlinear model and model identification ?

2.8Conclusion

The methods used to predict ship manoeuvring performance can be split into three main categories which are database methods, free model tests and numerical simulation of manoeuvring motions. The database method can be used when manoeuvring parameters are provided from many full-scale trials and free model tests. The manoeuvring performance of the designing vessel can then be predicted based on the database without performing simulations. It is not recommended to use this method unless the designing ship is closely similar to the vessels in the database. Free model tests can be performed when there is a lack of close similarity between the designing ship and the vessels in the database. These tests give a close reflection of reality, but do not give physical insight in why the vessels manoeuvres the way they do. Free model tests do not give any direct information that can be used for simulations, but they can be used in validations of simulations. When free model tests are performed it is important to consider scale effects. Numerical simulations of manoeuvring motions is a very useful method to describe a vessel’s manoeuvring performance in the design stage. In the design stage it is desired to get a quick prediction of the manoeuvring performance, which can be obtained using empirical methods. The empirical methods use dedicated mathematical models and manoeuvring coefficients. The hydrodynamic coefficients are found using empirical methods or a combination of empiricism and theory. Advantages of using empirical methods are low cost and quick results.
CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
3.1Introduction

This research is manoeuvring test of USV-RIB on calm water. The objective the manoeuvring test is to study IMO manoeuvring criteria for small vessels, to conduct the manoeuvring test for RIB-USV and to evaluate the manoeuvring testing for RIB-USV. This chapter is consists about the test method, flow chart and information that had collected.
Flow chart is design about how this research is process. This flow is also about your time management to complete this research. Then, collection of information is story about what thing that you uses and why you think is the best choice. Method is very important because to control the object. Method is the procedure to achieve the objective. Then, method also to conduct test and evaluate testing. That why this research must find the method to success in the process of objective. Finally, this research conclude that in this chapter is very important to make before doing test because is the first step and how to make this test happen successfully.
3.2Flow Chart
Flow chart is chart that told the process to achieve the objective. From the beginning process until the finishing the process. The flow chart can make process became simple to read by people see the flow diagram one to one another and this flow chart is divided by two which is Final Year Project 1and Final Project Year 2. This is because this flow chart want to explain timetable for researcher to manage their time for explore this research. This Figure 3.1 is shows the flow chart from Final Year Project 1 to Final Year Project 2.

4131945167640195840920320START
00START
-344548-577627

4598670178435F
Y
P
1
F
Y
P
1
1821231400170PROBLEM STATEMENT
00PROBLEM STATEMENT
244730786360
1833331205757RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
0RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
24379207048500.

2478319236220
182384084455LITERATURE REVIEW
0LITERATURE REVIEW

25000981716901879685344170METHODOLOGY
0METHODOLOGY

166370029718000308483031940500
2857500129540EMPIRICAL AND EXPERIMENT
00EMPIRICAL AND EXPERIMENT
300736027940TURNING ABILITY
0TURNING ABILITY
72199524130STOPPING ABILITY
00STOPPING ABILITY
4157980236220
33127959334500107441910287000
4710430238760F
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P
2
00F
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24364956921500248782727413000154871429827700335365829884400155671127413100
center33020MEDIUM SPEED
00MEDIUM SPEED
328358533020HIGH SPEED
00HIGH SPEED
78867023495LOW SPEED
00LOW SPEED
345040131432500152273031430800
151574518478500
180022527305VALIDATION DATA
00VALIDATION DATA

center95885DISCUSION
00DISCUSION

center183515CONCLUSION
00CONCLUSION

Figure 3.1: The Flow Chart of this research.

3.3Collection of Information
This research is needed to collect information to achieve their objective. First, this research use this RIB because this boat is introduced as one of the safest ways of transporting people and equipment over short or long distances at sea. Second, this research using all devices that link to USV. The thing that link to USV are GPS, Telemetry, Camera, Remote Control, Pixhawk, Mission Planner, and Control Box. GPS is uses to transfer and receive data from boat to remote control to mission planner. Telemetry is uses to adapt signal from boat to mission planner that had been set it area of frequency. Figure 3.2 is shows the actual picture of Telemetry. Camera is uses to view the picture in front of boat and shows in the sub-controller to give the view for controller. Figure 3.3 is shows the actual picture of camera. Pixhawk is uses to easy the process between remote control and boat. This devices is main component to connect and give order to gear, throttle, and steering of boat. Figure 3.4 is shows the actual picture of Pixhawk. Then, Mission Planner is component that to set at the software to guide and check manoeuvrability of boat. This devices can know the boat fuel, course, speed and others. This is connected to Google Maps that can show view and location. Figure 3.5 is shows the actual picture of mission planner while Figure 3.6 is shows the waypoint on mission planner. Control Box is sub connector from the gear, throttle, and steering to remote controller. Figure 3.7 is shows the actual picture of control box. This research is experimentally at Lake UPNM because this lake is rarely has disturbance and already calm water. This test must using IMO Standard to guide following their criteria to achieve their objective.

Figure 3.2: The Telemetry
(Source: google images)

Figure 3.3: The Camera
(Source: google images)

Figure 3.4: The Pixhawk
(Source: google images)

Figure 3.5: The Mission Planner

Figure 3.6: The Waypoint in Mission Planner

Figure 3.7: The Control Box
3.4Test Method
This research is using a method that experiment direct to the USV-RIB. This research will make prediction calculation by using empirical prediction method. Empirical prediction methods are capable of providing elements of turning and stopping performance using a very limited amount of input data, mostly basic ship particulars. These are especially useful in an early design stage. The advantage of manoeuvrability prediction in the preliminary design stage is that it provides early indications of potential problems with manoeuvrability, when it is relatively easy to correct. These methods are invariably based either on a series of model tests or statistics of full scale trial data. Two prediction that the research will calculate which is stopping and turning circle. After that, this research will setup the RIB-USV boats with control box, the laptop with mission planner and the controller. Then, this research will run the RIB-USV on calm water for manoeuvring test. Next, this research will collect data from the mission planner and finally, this research conclude the data by comparison with the empirical prediction method for meets the criteria of IMO Standards Manoeuvrability.
3.5Stopping Ability
3.5.1 Empirical Formula of Stopping Ability
The track reach or the stopping distance along a straight track, in ship lengths, is to be estimated as lying between the following boundaries:
Slow = Alow . loge (1 + Blow) + C ………………………. 1 Shigh = Ahigh . loge (1 + Bhigh) + C ………………………… 2
Where:
Slow, Shigh = low and high boundaries of the stopping distance, in
ship lengths
Alow, Ahigh = low and high boundaries for a coefficient dependent
upon the mass of the vessel divided by its
resistance coefficient.

Blow, Bhigh = low and high boundaries for a coefficient dependent
on the ratio of the vessel resistance immediately before
the stopping manoeuvre, to the astern thrust when the
vessel is dead in the water.C = coefficient dependent upon the product of the time
taken to achieve the astern thrust and the initial speed of
the vessel, the method of calculation of C is given below.

The value of the coefficient C is half the distance travelled, in ship lengths, by the vessel while the engine is reversed and full astern thrust is developed. The value of C will be larger for smaller vessels and defined by the following formulae:
123634523685600
CL if VS < 15 kn or TRV < 60s
C = CL VS15 if VS > 0.25 TRV
CL TRV60 if VS ? 0.25 TRV
Where:
VS = vessel speed, in knots. Speed for all manoeuvring tests should be
within 90-100% of this speed.TRV = time, in seconds, necessary to achieve steady reverse thrustCL = coefficient that depends on length and is to be calculated as:
82317218690200
if L ? 100m
= – 0.012 . (L + 3.5) if 100m < L ? 200m
-0.003 . (L + 1.7) if 200m < L ? 300m
0.8 if L > 300mL = length of the vessel, in m, measured between perpendiculars
3.5.2 Experiment Stopping Ability
In this stopping test, first step is this research will be setup the waypoint on the mission planner which is this research setup the astern order point. Then, start the boat starting the steady speed until the boat reach the astern order point. Then, change to full astern. After the gear of USV-RIB changed, turns the rudder for 5° and gear back to normal. While the boat makes stopping ability, start take time taken from astern order point until the boat really stops engine run. This research collect data on time taken to engine stops and the distance track reach. Then, repeat the step for the slow, medium and high speed. Figure 3.8 is shows the stopping test runs.

331470184150 Astern order point
00 Astern order point
42608524384000
150304541274920548601270000
370744825114300
Figure 3.8: The Stopping Test runs
3.6Turning Ability
3.6.1Empirical Formula of Turning Ability
First, steady turning diameter in ship lengths has to be calculated as:
STDL = 4.19 – 203 CB?R + 47.4 TrimL – 13.0 BL + 194?R – 35.8 Sp . ChL . T (ST-1) + 3.82 Sp . ChL . T (ST-2) + 7.79 ABL . T + 0.7 (TTL -1) (?R??R?) (ST-1) …. 1
Where:
STD = steady turning diameter, in m
CB = block coefficient
?R = rudder angle, in degrees (positive to starboard)
Trim = static trim, in m
L = length of the vessel, in m, measured between
perpendicularsB = moulded breadth, in m
Sp = span of rudder, in m
Ch = mean chord of rudder, in m,
T = design draft at full load, in m
ST = stern type 1 = Closed 2 = Open
TL = draft, in m, at which turning circle is estimated
AB = submerged bow profile area, in m2
Tactical diameter and advance (both in terms of ship length) are to be estimated as:
TDL = 0.910 STDL + 0.424 Vs?L + 0.675 ……… 2
AdL = 0.519 TDL + 1.33 ………….. 3

Where:

TD = Tactical Diameter, in m
Vs = Test Speed, in knots
Ad = Advance, in m
3.6.2Experiment Turning Ability
In this turning test, the procedure is make a rudder angle is 35°, always approach with zero yaw rate and complete turning circle not more than 720°. First step is this research will be mark the waypoint on the mission planner where is the point the boat on rudder angle 35°. Then, start the boat starting the steady speed on the track until complete their fully turning. After that, mark the point the boat change the heading angle 90° and 180°. Always keep watch on 90° and 180° ship heading time taken until the boat finish turning. Then, calculate the distance of advance and tactical diameter. Finally, repeat the steps for the slow, medium and high speed. Figure 3.9 is shows the turning circle test runs.

19812048260
Rudder angle change 180° 90°
00
Rudder angle change 180° 90°
42933139405300110299537401400
355091928067000388429536258590°90
17030701206500
27317701397000
180°
Figure 3.9: The Turning Circle Test runs
CHAPTER 4
RESEARCH ANALYSIS
4.1Introduction

This research is analysis the data from the manoeuvring test that had been done. Then, the data that produced will be comparison with IMO Standard Manoeuvrability. The results from that comparison will shows that the manoeuvring test is relevant or not in the rules that had fixed by IMO Standard Manoeuvrability. Next, this research will shows the discussion form where the answers of all error from the comparison between the manoeuvring test and the IMO Standard Manoeuvrability.

4.2Result of Method
The details formulae of this USV-RIB has been taken from the AB Manoeuvrability Journal because the details from them are same with this USV-RIB. The Table 4.1 has been shown the details of this USV-RIB. The result of empirical prediction of two element manoeuvring test are calculated. The result of track reach distance of stopping ability has been shown in Table 4.2. The result of tactical diameter and advance in different speed of turning ability has been shown in Table 4.3. The manipulated variable in this research is the speed of the boat while the responded variable is the result of two ability which is stopping ability and turning ability. After 2 weeks run it the manoeuvring test, the research got the all result of stopping ability and turning ability. The result of stopping ability in the time taken engine stops and the distance track reach in different speed had done been recorded. The result of turning ability in the tactical diameter, advance, time taken to change 90° and 180° in different speed had been recorded. The table 4.4 and 4.5 shows the result of stopping ability and turning ability.
Table 4.1: The details of data from USV-RIB
Stopping Ability Units
Alow, 1
Ahigh3
Blow 0.6
Bhigh1.0
C 2.3
Turning Ability Units
L, length of ship 3.2m
CB, block coefficient 0.562
?R, rudder angle 35°
Trim, static trim 0.00035m
B, molded breadth 1.51m
Sp, span of rudder 0
Ch, mean chord of rudder 0
T, design draft at full load 0.3m
ST, stern type 1
AB, submerged bow profile 0.313m2
(Source: AB Manoeuvrability)
4.3 Stopping Ability
4.3.1 The Result Empirical Calculation of Stopping Ability
Stopping ability: the distances of track reach in different speed are shown in Table 4.2.

Table 4.2: The Results Distances of Track Reach in Different Speed
Slow = Alow . loge (1 + Blow) + C
Shigh = Ahigh . loge (1 + Bhigh) + C
Steady speed
Slow = 1 x loge (1 + 0.6) + 2.3
= 2.99 L, 9.568m
Shigh = 3 x loge (1 + 1) + 2.3
= 4.9 L, 15.68m

According to the criteria IMO Standard Manoeuvring, the USV-RIB is in compliance with the track reach requirement at the low boundary 2.99 L < 15L while on high boundary 4.9 L < 15L. Figure 4.1 is shows the result empirical stopping ability in graphical form.

Figure 4.1: Empirical calculation result of Stopping Ability
4.3.2 The Result Manoeuvring Test of Stopping Ability
The table 4.3 is shows the parameters resulting by the stopping ability test.

Table 4.3: The Parameters results Stopping Ability
Speed Time taken to engine stops (s) Distance track reach (m)
Low 30.1 10.304m, 3.22 L
Medium 35 15.616m, 4.88 L
High 40.8 16.672m, 5.21 L
According to the criteria IMO Standard Manoeuvring, the USV-RIB is in compliance with the track reach requirement at the low boundary 3.22 L < 15L while on high boundary 5.21 L < 15L. Figure 4.2, 4.3, and 4.4 are shows the result of stopping test in graphical forms.

Figure 4.2: Stopping Test result for Slow Speed

Figure 4.3: Stopping Test result for Medium Speed

Figure 4.4: Stopping Test result for High Speed
4.3.3Discussion on Stopping Ability
Figure 4.5 is shows the validation data between empirical calculation and experiment of stopping ability test for high speed in graphical form.

Figure 4.5: Validation data stopping ability
According to the calculations in the empirical prediction method and the result test, the result of both method have proven that track reach for this USV-RIB is comply with the criteria of the IMO Standard Manoeuvrability for the small vessels because the criteria manoeuvre for Stopping Test of small vessels in IMO Standard Manoeuvrability at track reach is below than 15 length of ship.
Next, there were a little difference between the result of calculation and the result of stopping test. This is because of disturbance of environment in UPNM lakes and Connection error between controller with boat. Weak connectivity between controller and boat will delay the signal to conduct test. Last, the different speed of USV-RIB boat had shown in the result of experiment which can be concluded that the higher the speed of boat then the higher the distance track reach that boat manoeuvre. Figure 4.6 is shows the stopping result in different speed on graphical form.

Figure 4.6: The stopping result in Different Speed
4.4 Turning Ability
4.4.1 The Result Empirical Calculation of Turning Ability
Turning ability: the steady turning diameter must been calculated first. Then, the tactical diameter and advance of different speed are shown in Table 4.4.

STDL = 4.19 – 203 CB?R + 47.4 TrimL – 13.0 BL + 194?R – 35.8 Sp . ChL . T (ST-1) + 3.82 Sp . ChL . T (ST-2) + 7.79 ABL . T + 0.7 (TTL -1) (?R??R?) (ST-1)
= 4.19 – 2030.56235 + 47.40.0003535 – 13.0×1.5135 + 19435 – 35.803.2×0.3(1-1) + 3.8203.2×0.3(1-2) + 7.790.3133.2×0.3 + 0.7(35?35?(1-1)
= 0.67 L, 2.144m
Table 4.4: The Results Tactical Diameter and Advance of Different Speed
TDL = 0.910 STDL + 0.424 Vs?L + 0.675
AdL = 0.519 TDL + 1.33
Low
TDL = 0.910 0.673.2 + 0.424 8?3.2 + 0.675
TD = 2.76 L, 8.83m
AdL = 0.519 2.763.2 + 1.33
AD = 1.78 L, 5.70m Medium
TDL = 0.910 0.673.2 + 0.424 12?3.2 + 0.675
TD = 3.71 L, 11.87m
AdL = 0.519 3.713.2 + 1.33
AD = 1.93 L, 6.18m High
TDL = 0.910 0.673.2 + 0.424 15?3.2 + 0.675
TD = 4.42 L, 14.14m
AdL = 0.519 4.423.2 + 1.33
AD = 2.05 L, 6.56m

According to the criteria IMO Standard Manoeuvring, the USV-RIB is in compliance with the tactical diameter 2.76 L < 3.71 L <4.42 L <5.0 L while on Advance 1.78 L < 1.93 L < 2.05 L <4.5 L. Figure 4.7, 4.8 and 4.9 are shows the result of empirical turning ability in graphical forms.

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Figure 4.7: Empirical calculation of turning result for Slow Speed

Figure 4.8: Empirical calculation of turning result for Medium Speed

Figure 4.9: Empirical calculation of turning result for High Speed
4.4.2 The Result Manoeuvring Test of USV-RIB
The table 4.4 is shows the parameters resulting by the turning ability test.

Table 4.4: The Parameters of Turning Ability
Speed Tactical diameter (m) Advance (m) Time taken to change 90° (s) Time taken to change 180° (s)
Low 9.568m
2.99 L 6.432m
2.01 L 16.5 22.85
Medium 12.608m
3.94 L 6.912m
2.16 L 13.9 19.65
High 14.88m
4.65 L 7.296m
2.28 L 11.7 17.76
According to the criteria IMO Standard Manoeuvring, the USV-RIB is in compliance with the tactical diameter 2.99 L < 3.94 L <4.65 L <5.0 L while on Advance 2.01 L < 2.16 L < 2.28 L <4.5 L. Figure 4.10, 4.11, and 4.12 are shows the result of turning test in graph forms.

Figure 4.10: Turning result for Slow Speed

Figure 4.11: Turning result for Medium Speed

Figure 4.12: Turning result for High Speed
4.4.3Discussion of Turning Ability
Figure 4.13 is shows the validation data between empirical calculation and experiment of stopping ability test for high speed in graphical form.

Figure 4.13: Validation data turning ability
According to the calculations in the empirical prediction method and the result test, the result of both method have proven that track reach for this USV-RIB is comply with the criteria of the IMO Standard Manoeuvrability for the small vessels because the criteria manoeuvre for Stopping Test of small vessels in IMO Standard Manoeuvrability at tactical diameter is below than 5 length of ship while advance is below than 4.5 length of ship. Next, the result of both are bit difference in values because in real conduct vessels gives some impact which is the environment surrounding and the rudder error, so the smooth surface can affect the boat manoeuvre the boat drift long in distance. This research find out the rudder had problem when controlling the USV-RIB. The deflection of rudder makes the result of turning test is different than the empirical calculation. Lastly, the different speed had changed the distances between tactical diameter and advance hence, this research can conclude that the different speed, the different result of tactical diameter and advance. Figure 4.14 is shows the result of different speed turning ability in graphical form.

Figure 4.14: Turning Test in Different Speed
CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION
5.1Introduction

This chapter is about the research conclude after all manoeuvring test and discussion that had been done completely with the period of time that had given. This research also conclude from all test related with the research objective which is relevant or not. Then, suggestion of improvement inserted once in this chapter to looking forward for better researches and finally, the conclusion of overall in this research.
5.2Manoeuvring Test related with Research Objective
In this research, the first of the research objective is to study IMO Manoeuvring criteria for small vessels. Understanding and apply test on boat according the IMO Manoeuvring criteria is related the study IMO Manoeuvring. More deeply explore the criteria track reach, tactical dimeter, advance and overshoot angles are all about the characteristics IMO Standard Manoeuvring Small Vessels of Stopping ability and Turning Ability. From all that, this explanations proved that manoeuvring test is related with research objective.

Next, to conduct manoeuvring test for RIB-USV. Setup the waypoint in the mission planner and run the manoeuvring test with RIB-USV that had on it which is control box, controller and are the situation that the research can conduct the test with guideline of IMO Standards Manoeuvrability. Two methods which is empirical prediction calculation and sea trials boat have described the actual picture how to conduct test. So that, the second of this research objective had related with manoeuvring test.
Final of this research objective is to evaluate the manoeuvring testing for RIB-USV. Comparison data between the empirical calculation and experiment in lakes of UPNM evaluate the manoeuvring test which is followed on the IMO Standard Manoeuvrability. Different speed of all test make the different result. From there, the research can evaluate this test very difficult to run it without guideline and references from IMO Standard Manoeuvrability and lectures. So that, the last of this research objective had related with manoeuvring test.
5.3Suggestions of Improvements
RIB-USV is the unmanned surface vehicle boat that had controlled by two components which is the controller and mission planner. Weakness of mission planner is about telemetry. To improve the manoeuvring test in the future, biggest coverage telemetry on that mission planner must put on the USV-RIB to coverage areas for control the RIB boat so that acceptance of order from mission planner to the USV-RIB boat will correct manoeuvre. Then, the GPS need to upgrade so that the signal will not delay hence, the USV-RIB will received signal perfect without any disturbances.
Next, mathematical model is good because the result of calculation makes the research can see the actual picture of the test. Moreover, conducting test on USV-RIB in the real object very difficult to get the result exactly. So that, in future, the manoeuvring test must conduct with the free model boat first because this test is easy to handle and less cost in equipment. In addition, the environment place like open places makes more disturbance than the close place. Because the environment of test make impact the result of the test.
Lastly, the Zig-Zag Ability in the future research because this element is one of that group manoeuvring characteristics. Zig-Zag Ability is the movement of boat manoeuvre in zig-zag condition and also consists criteria that could be improve in conduct test on USV-RIB. Therefore, the zig-zag ability is needed because to stabilize the result in the end and the performance of this USV-RIB.
5.4Limitation of this research
Every single experiment must had limitation to carry on test. This is because of disturbances of environment, low equipment and staffs and other else. But in this research, the major limitations is about environment. The UPNM lakes has an open area which means a lot of disturbance will affect this manoeuvring test. The first disturbance is wind which means the disturbances of wind will affect the movement of boat to manoeuvre properly. The more wind towards on the boat, the more distance the boat manoeuvre. Last, the surface of lake because the calm lake which is smooth surface will drag the boat manoeuvre on the lake will drift more distance than usually.
The minor limitation on this research is the connectivity between the mission planner and the control box. This because the coverage of the mission planner for this experiment is only 1 km area. The limitation to collect data is disturbed when the boat manoeuvre more than the limits of distance coverage. Therefore, the telemetry for this research must upgraded to get sharper in collecting data for this manoeuvring test. Then, the more coverage telemetry area, the sharper collect data on this manoeuvring test by mission planner.
5.5Conclusion

Manoeuvring test of USV-RIB on calm water is achieved when the research objective had been relate with that. Study on the criteria characteristic manoeuvring standard from IMO Standard gives the more knowledge deeply in conducting test. Although turning ability and stopping ability for a small vessel gives a small impact when running test but that really work the test because that vessels can describe how to manoeuvre vessels in safety and manoeuvrability. Safety is most important in life moreover in manoeuvre vessels in open sea. Hence, the more study of criteria manoeuvring standard can gives the full protection when handling the vessels. Manoeuvring test on small vessels need to students know deeply especially the maritime students because in the future the students will work on it. That’s why in student must focus in practical manoeuvre vessels because manoeuvre the vessel in real life than simulator in so far away experience and knowledge. Knowledges about the specifications of boat, design of boat and performances of boat are really important to understand. Because of that, the IMO Standards ruled the guideline for the safety in manoeuvre and good manoeuvrability. Lastly, calculation for the moment and movement vessels first are good before conduct test because that can helps to evaluate the manoeuvre the vessels from validation data between the calculation and experiment.
REFERENCES
Azzeri, M. N., Adnan, F. A., ; Md, M. Z., Zain. (2016). A Concept Design of Three Rudders-shaped like Body in Columns for Low-drag USV. A Concept Design of Three Rudders-shaped like Body in Columns for Low-drag USV Journal, 2016. 1-9
Breivik, M. (2008). Straight-Line Target Tracking for Unmanned Surface Vehicles. Modeling, Identification and Control. Straight-Line Target Tracking for Unmanned Surface Vehicles. Modeling, Identification and Control Journal, February 2008. 131-149
C.Sonnenburg. (2010). Control-Oriented Planar Motion Modeling of Unmanned Surface Vehicle. Control-Oriented Planar Motion Modeling of Unmanned Surface Vehicle Journal, September 2010.1-20
Hajivand, A. (2015). Virtual Simulation of Maneuvering Captive Tests for a Surface Vessels. Virtual Simulation of Maneuvering Captive Tests for a Surface Vessels Journal, 20 March 2015.848-872
John C. Daidola, F. L. (2002). Evolution of the Standards for Maneuverability. SNAME Transactions. Evolution of the Standards for Maneuverability. SNAME Transactions Journal, 2002.395-411
M. (2002). Standards for Ship Manoeuvrability. Standards for Ship Manoeuvrability Journal, December 2002.1-8
Muske, K. R., ; H. A. (2008). Identification of a Control Oriented Nonlinear Dynamic USV Model. Identification of a Control Oriented Nonlinear Dynamic USV Model, 11 June 2008.1-6
N. I., ; Seo, J. H. (2010). Ship Manoeuvring Performance Experiments Using a Free Running Model Ship. Ship Manoeuvring Performance Experiments Using a Free Running Model Ship Journal, March 2010.1-5
Of, A. B., Shipping. (2006). Abs Guide Vessel Maneuverability. Abs Guide Vessel Maneuverability Journal, February 2017. 1-111
Sonnenburg, C. R. (2012). Modeling, Identification, and Control of an Unmanned Surface Vehicle. Modeling, Identification, and Control of an Unmanned Surface Vehicle Journal, 2012.1-30
Yoon, H. K. (2011). Identification of Four-DOF Dynamics of RIB using Sea Trial Tests. Journal of Society of Naval Architects of Korea, 2011.8-14.

Yoon, H. K. (2016). Modeling and Simulation of the 6DOF motion of a high Speed Planing Hull Running in Calm Sea. Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea, 2016.10-17
APPENDIX ?
FINAL YEAR PROJECT SCHEDULE
No
Activity
Jan
Feb
Mac
Apr
May
Jan
Feb
Mac
Apr
May
1 Research proposal / / 2 Preparation of proposal / / 3 Collect data / / / / / 4 Data processing / / 5 Scientific analysis / /
6 Presentation /
7 Final report APPENDIX II

List of Criteria IMO Standard Manoeuvrability
Criteria IMO Standards Manoeuvrability
Stopping ability:
Stopping test with full astern
Track reach ;15 L Turning ability:
Turning test with maximum rudder angle (35°)

Advance ;4.5 L
Tactical diameter ;5.0 L

APPENDIX ?I
The Formula resulting distances of track reach in different speed
Slow = Alow . loge (1 + Blow) + C
Shigh = Ahigh . loge (1 + Bhigh) + C
Steady speed
Slow = Alow . loge (1 + Blow) + C
Shigh = Ahigh . loge (1 + Bhigh) + C
The Formula resulting tactical diameter and advance of different speed
TDL = 0.910 STDL + 0.424 Vs?L + 0.675
AdL = 0.519 TDL + 1.33
Low
Medium High
APPENDIX IV
The Parameters resulting Stopping Ability
Speed Time taken to engine stops (s) Distance track reach (m)
Low Medium High The Parameters of Turning Ability
Speed Tactical diameter (m) Advance (m) Time taken to change 90° (s) Time taken to change 180° (s)
Low Medium High APPENDIX V
Details Data of USV-RIB
Stopping Ability Units
Alow, 1
Ahigh3
Blow 0.6
Bhigh1.0
C 2.3
Turning Ability Units
L, length of ship 3.2m
CB, block coefficient 0.562
?R, rudder angle 35°
Trim, static trim 0.00035m
B, molded breadth 1.51m
Sp, span of rudder 0
Ch, mean chord of rudder 0
T, design draft at full load 0.3m
ST, stern type 1
AB, submerged bow profile 0.313m2
(Source: AB Manoeuvrability)