Caffeine one of the most consumed stimulant found in a variety of foods

Caffeine one of the most consumed stimulant found in a variety of foods. Caffeine act a stimulant which means it helps increase metabolism and make a person more at alert. Consumption of caffeine on a daily use can be considered a daily thing for anyone although to a pregnant women consumption of caffeine can lead to more serious complication such as a headache, fatigue, sleep difficulties, and increased urine production. Caffeine intake may have little to no effect on the mother although the intake may have a lot of effect on the fetus.
The fetus growing in the belly are usually really fragile that is their system are not developed, they are still in the process of developing completely. Any unwanted substances in their system could have an immediate effect of them or lead to complications. Since caffeine is known as a stimulant which increases metabolism, this could have an effect on the fetus as the blood flow from the mother can be decreased or affected easily putting the baby in danger. Caffeine consumption during pregnancy is very important as it helps enlighten expecting mother on if they want to consume caffeine during pregnant considering the complication involved or if they will rather stay away from it. Consumption of caffeine during pregnancy can have a huge effect on the fetus and mother although when taken in a moderate amount there might be no effect all depending on the mother body.
Caffeine intake during pregnancy has been shown to cause low birth rate among infant. Low birth rate occurs when new born or infant is born below their normal standard of weight they should weigh. Low birth weight is also associated with a higher risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in adult life.1 Low birth weight can be cause due to various reason however through based on a meta-analysis conducted between two author independently using MEDLINE an SCOPUS database. It was shown that there is a relationship between having caffeine while pregnant and low birth weight infant. When the fetus is still developing, what the mother consumed is what helps an infant develops in the womb considering that some of the products that adult consume can be very bad to the health.
Pregnancy loss is another factor associated with caffeine use during pregnancy. Pregnancy loss or miscarriage can occur due to various reasons, stress and wrong source of nutrients for the fetus can also be a cause. Caffeine intake for a pregnant woman has been proven to have an impact on pregnancy loss. This can be caused due to how fragile a fetus system is, a fetus can get exposed to caffeine through their amniotic fluid or umbilical cord but due to their weak system they are unable to handle it .2 Based on a study conducted on PubMed with keywords caffeine, coffee, stillbirth and pregnancy loss. Results showed that the risk of pregnancy loss for a pregnant mother who intake caffeine increased by 19% for every 150mg/day.2 A pregnant woman is adults and have a more mature system that can handle more compared to a fetus who is still developing in the womb.
Another consequence associated with the intake of caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with weight gain in the fetus from birth to around when they turn 6 years and also related to high body fat during childhood. Caffeine consumed during pregnancy usually crosses the placenta and enter the fetal circulation freely this exposure to caffeine is prolonged in the system as a result of a slow clearance of caffeine and slow metabolism in both mother and fetus.3 Evidence from the study conducted further support these argument as it was observed that, when results from both mothers who consumed caffeine and mother who consumed no or less caffeine showed that children whose mothers consumed 6 units or more caffeine per day tended to have a lower weight at birth, higher weight gain from birth to 6 years and a higher body mass index.3 The results suggest that high levels of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy are therefore associated with offspring growth patterns and fat distribution.
Although caffeine intake from either coffee and caffeinated drinks are associated with a lot of consequences during pregnancy based on different study. However, some pieces of evidence from other studies have contradicted the yes side of caffeine intake during pregnancy. Stillbirth occurs when a baby is lost before or after birth. Stillbirth is sometimes associated with the use of caffeine during birth. However, it has shown that stillbirth has no relationship with the consumption of caffeine during pregnancy as other factors could play a factor. Based on the research done from eight publications, five of the studies investigating the association between caffeine and stillbirth identified little to no evidence between both.4 Another factor associated with caffeine intake is a premature birth. Premature birth usually occurs when a baby is delivered a few weeks earlier before the baby’s estimated due date. Which sometimes leads to complications and other serious health issues. Preterm birth/premature birth is often associated with the use of caffeine during pregnancy, however, a study conducted based on searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Register scanned bibliographies of published studies states which that premature birth does not have any relationship with caffeine intake.5 Premature birth occurs more due to the mother health that is how well the mother is before pregnancy such her weight, and having a good nutritional diet during pregnancy to keep the baby healthy.5
Finally, Hypertensive pregnancy disorder is another factor linked to caffeine consumption during pregnancy. Hypertensive pregnancy occurs when the blood pressure of the mother is abnormal sometimes called high blood pressure, this is usually a source of concern as it can be used to indicate a more complicated problem such the fetus is in danger. Hypertensives pregnancy can cause problems for the fetus like preventing the placenta from getting enough blood if this happens the baby does not get enough oxygen.6 A Study conducted on a total of 936 healthy pregnancies from the WHISTLER birth cohort by using data based on coffee intake and coffee consumption were obtained through postpartum questionnaires and used to conduct a study provided an outcome that proved that there is no linear relationship between both variables.6 Hypertensive pregnancy can be avoided through pregnancy by consuming more proteins and more intake of water.

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