A literature review is important to conduct for the researcher to see what is already known about the problem and whether the intended topic of research requires further investigation. The aim of this project was to critically engage with the rural caregivers, and explore their challenges in the home-based program for HIV/AIDS caregiving in the rural area. The aim of the literature review is to acquire and compare findings in the global, the Sub Saharan and local South African literature. Therefore, the literature review the researcher to also identify gaps in the literature. According to Creswell (2012), literature review takes a form of a tunnel. Therefore, the researcher had to look at other literature from a global, regional and local level. This was important to do to be able to identify at what level research appears to be deficient.