4486275000Lebanese University Faculty of Business Administration and Economics Sciences Digital Marketing Campaign for a Rural Sweets Shop Senior Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor Of Arts in Business Administration Prepared by Nabih Abdallah ID

4486275000Lebanese University
Faculty of Business
Administration and
Economics Sciences
Digital Marketing Campaign for a Rural Sweets Shop
Senior Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor Of Arts in Business Administration
Prepared by
Nabih Abdallah
ID: 2013 0773
Committee Members:
Principle: Supervisor: Dr. Abdul Hassan Haidar
Co: Supervisor: Ms. Nada Abdallah
Academic Year: 2015-2016
AcknowledgementsI would like to express my very great appreciation to Dr. Abdul Hassan Haidar for his valuable and constructive suggestions, his continious support and guidance, for his patience, motivaiton and immense knowledge during the planning and development of this research work. His willingness to give his time so generously has been very much appreciated. I could not imagine having a better advisor and mentor for my senior project study.

I would like to express my deepest appreciation to all those who provided us the possibility to complete this report.  A special gratitude I give to our project co-adviser, Dr. Nada Abdallah, whose contribution in stimulating suggestions and encouragement, helped me successfully complete my study.

Furthermore, I would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation the crucial role of Dr. Ali El Moussawi, whose contribution in gaining a better understanding of the SPSS software has been very helpful in the successful completion of this research.

Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Chapter 1 : Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc471378692 h 71.1Digital Marketing Definition PAGEREF _Toc471378693 h 71.2Digital Marketing Benefits PAGEREF _Toc471378694 h 81.3Challenges Facing Digital Marketers PAGEREF _Toc471378695 h 101.4Digital Marketing vs. Traditional Marketing PAGEREF _Toc471378696 h 111.5Small Business Definition PAGEREF _Toc471378697 h 131.6Internet/Smart phones Trends and Statistics PAGEREF _Toc471378698 h 141.7Mobile Sector in Lebanon PAGEREF _Toc471378699 h 181.8E-Readiness Assessment of Lebanon PAGEREF _Toc471378700 h 191.9Smart App readiness in Lebanon PAGEREF _Toc471378701 h 231.9.1Technology Acceptance Model PAGEREF _Toc471378702 h 241.9.2Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) PAGEREF _Toc471378703 h 251.9.3Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) PAGEREF _Toc471378704 h 261.9.4UTAUT2 Model PAGEREF _Toc471378705 h 261.9.5 AIDA model PAGEREF _Toc471378706 h 281.10Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc471378707 h 31Chapter 2 : Research Methodology PAGEREF _Toc471378708 h 332.1 Identifying the Research Problem PAGEREF _Toc471378709 h 33A.Environmental Context of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc471378710 h 34B.Marketing Decision Problem and Marketing Research Problem PAGEREF _Toc471378711 h 34C.Approach to the Problem PAGEREF _Toc471378712 h 34D.Research Design PAGEREF _Toc471378713 h 35E.Scaling PAGEREF _Toc471378714 h 37Chapter 3 : Results PAGEREF _Toc471378715 h 393.1 Sampling PAGEREF _Toc471378716 h 393.2 Instrumentation and data collection PAGEREF _Toc471378717 h 393.3 Major Findings PAGEREF _Toc471378718 h 40Descriptive statistics: PAGEREF _Toc471378719 h 40Response to ads Via Whatsapp relations to other variables: PAGEREF _Toc471378720 h 453.3 Testing the Hypothesis PAGEREF _Toc471378721 h 53Chapter 4 : Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc471378722 h 54Chapter 5 : Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc471378723 h 56Chapter 6 : Limitations PAGEREF _Toc471378724 h 57Appendix PAGEREF _Toc471378725 h 58Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc471378726 h 64
List of Tables
TOC h z c “Table” Table 1: Chi-Square test of gender and the response to ads via Whatsapp. PAGEREF _Toc471378685 h 45Table 2: The contingency table of the age and the response to ads via Whatsapp. PAGEREF _Toc471378686 h 46Table 3: Chi-Square test of education and the response to ads via Whatsapp. PAGEREF _Toc471378687 h 49Table 4: The contingency table of the education and the response to ads via Whatsapp. PAGEREF _Toc471378688 h 50Table 5: Chi-Square test of the gender and the response to ads via Whatsapp. PAGEREF _Toc471378689 h 52Table 6: Chi-Square test of the Whatsapp usage rate and the response to ads via Whatsapp. PAGEREF _Toc471378690 h 53
List of Figures
TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1: Internet Penetration in the Middle East for December 31, 2014 PAGEREF _Toc471378669 h 14Figure 2: Internet Users in the Middle East as at December 31, 2014 PAGEREF _Toc471378670 h 15Figure 3: Top 5 social networking sites used PAGEREF _Toc471378671 h 16Figure 4: Smartphone Penetration in 2014 PAGEREF _Toc471378672 h 18Figure 5: Original TAM proposed by Davis PAGEREF _Toc471378673 h 25Figure 6: Research Model PAGEREF _Toc471378674 h 27Figure 7: The process of defining the problem and developing an approach. PAGEREF _Toc471378675 h 33Figure 8: A classification of marketing research designs. PAGEREF _Toc471378676 h 36Figure 9: A classification of scaling techniques. PAGEREF _Toc471378677 h 37Figure 10: A classification of sampling techniques. PAGEREF _Toc471378678 h 39Figure 11: Percentage of respondent that own a smartphone. PAGEREF _Toc471378679 h 40Figure 12: Percentage of respondent that download social media apps. PAGEREF _Toc471378680 h 41Figure 13: Respondents responses on whether they would like to receive offers via Whatsapp. PAGEREF _Toc471378681 h 41Figure 14: Respondents responses on whether they would like to be notified of offers via SMS. PAGEREF _Toc471378682 h 42Figure 15: Respondents responses on whether they respond to ads viewed on Facebook. PAGEREF _Toc471378683 h 43Figure 16: Respondent response on whether they would follow an Instagram page. PAGEREF _Toc471378684 h 45

: Introduction
Digital Marketing DefinitionIn simplistic terms, digital marketing is the promotion of products or brands via one or more forms of electronic media. Digital marketing differs from traditional marketing in that it involves the use of channels and methods that enable an organization to analyze marketing campaigns and understand what is working and what isn’t – typically in real time CITATION Sta l 1033 (Chaffey, 2012).
Digital marketers monitor things like what is being viewed, how often and for how long, sales conversions, what content works and doesn’t work, etc. It is the marketing of products or services using digital channels to reach consumers. The key objective is to promote brands through various forms of digital media.

Digital marketing extends beyond internet marketing to include channels that do not require the use of the internet. It includes mobile phones (both SMS and MMS), social media marketing, display advertising, search engine marketing, and any other form of digital media CITATION Sta l 1033 (Chaffey, 2012).

Most experts believe that ‘digital’ is not just yet another channel for marketing. It requires a new approach to marketing and a new understanding of customer behavior. For example, it requires companies to analyze and quantify the value of downloads of apps on mobile devices, tweets on Twitter, likes on Facebook and so on.

Digital marketing now encompasses both push and pull techniques. With outbound marketing tactics, for example, companies may place ads, cold-call, and email or otherwise reach out to potential customers. Companies have also begun to use advertorials to distribute their message, where advertising is directly embedded in editorial content CITATION Mar16 l 1033 (Rouse, 2016).

With inbound marketing techniques, on the other hand, companies may use social media, digital content in e-books, webinars or e-newsletters to encourage prospects to click on links and learn more about a company and its services. While outbound marketing can potentially reach a wider audience, it also runs the risk of barraging uninterested consumers. Inbound marketing is designed to reach interested prospects through audience segmentation, but by its nature may reach a much narrower segment of potential customers CITATION Mar16 l 1033 (Rouse, 2016).

Digital Marketing BenefitsDigital media is so pervasive that consumers have access to information any time and any place they want it. Gone are the days when the messages people got about your products or services came from you and consisted of only what you wanted them to know. Digital media is an ever-growing source of entertainment, news, shopping and social interaction, and consumers are now exposed not just to what your company says about your brand, but what the media, friends, relatives, peers, etc., are saying as well. And they are more likely to believe them than you. People want brands they can trust, companies that know them, communications that are personalized and relevant, and offers tailored to their needs and preferences.

Digital marketing is vitally important for small businesses because it provide the opportunity to establish significantly more engaged communication channels with consumers for a significantly reduced budget.

Digital marketing & especially social driven marketing strategies allow for the small business owner to compete with large corporates, something that has not been possible for decades due to the limitations of the traditional broadcasting system.

Traditional methods of marketing created significant barriers to entry for small businesses, with huge budgets required to get your messages out there to the viewing and consuming public. In the past small businesses have been forced to make do with little to no real marketing or communications presence in their target audiences. 
Small businesses are finding major benefits to modern marketing, especially in the digital and socially driven marketing fields where the potential to conceive and implement a successful marketing strategy is high. 
So what are these huge benefits for small businesses? The following is a short list of the biggest and most effective benefits digital marketing can provide to small business.

Digital Marketing enables a direct communication pathway between your business and your consumer, enabling you to build your own audience of loyal fans CITATION Baz15 l 1033 (Bazuki, 2015).

Digital marketing generates better Intel on consumers and can provide significantly improved ROI CITATION Baz15 l 1033 (Bazuki, 2015).

Digital marketing enables multi-device contact with consumers based on the consumer’s choice of device, time, place and need CITATION Baz15 l 1033 (Bazuki, 2015).  
More affordable than traditional marketing. An e-mail or a social media campaign can transmit the same message to customers for less money than a TV-Ad or a newspaper one. Moreover social media campaigns can reach a wider audience in any part of the world CITATION Vel13 l 1033 (Velasco, 2013).

Easier to track results. With a wide range of analytics and data we are able to analyze our own marketing campaigns and find out how the campaign performed and how it can be improved. Of course you can get this data for traditional marketing campaigns but a digital campaign will allow you to measure the success in real time, giving you the advantage of planning more effectively and making changes almost instantly CITATION Vel13 l 1033 (Velasco, 2013).

The number of consumers. Traditional marketing has lost a huge amount of consumers. Most people read their newspapers on their iPad or some type of tablet. You need to develop your marketing and embrace the digital age. According to a study of UK National Statistics more than 82% of UK adults went online in the first three months of 2011: that’s over 40 million individuals CITATION Vel13 l 1033 (Velasco, 2013).

Greater client appeal – The firms have the benefit of attractive to customers in results that can be brought by a medium rapidly. Online marketing gives a range to them of options to promote their business to the market. Thus, the technique and overall success of marketing strategies rely on business objectives and the total amount the business desire to purchase online marketing CITATION Kha14 l 1033 (Khan, 2014).

Consumer Behavior is trending towards Digital – Newspaper readership is in decline. Yellow pages are almost non-existent. Customers are spending more time online and on mobile, therefore more of your marketing efforts should be digital too CITATION Omo15 l 1033 (Omoniyi, 2015).
Low Barrier to Entry – Accessible to small businesses. Unlike traditional methods like television and outdoor advertising which requires significant budget; digital marketing can be implemented by any size organization CITATION Omo15 l 1033 (Omoniyi, 2015).
It is clear that the digital age has arrived and it’s time for those who have not yet adapted to the new way of marketing, to open themselves to the new way of interaction CITATION Vel13 l 1033 (Velasco, 2013).

The world is rapidly shifting from analogue to digital. People are consuming more and more digital content on a daily basis – on mobile phones, laptops, desktop computers at work, and more – and companies that have not yet recognized this in their marketing strategies need to adapt fast. CITATION Ter11 l 1033 (Irwin, 2011 )Why is digital marketing so important? Because it is not only a rapidly growing force in the current marketing playing field, it is set to be the future of marketing, and it seems likely that digital media will soon replace more traditional forms altogether CITATION Ter11 l 1033 (Irwin, 2011 ).

While older generations will no doubt lament the demise of paper-based newspapers, books, communication methods and traditional TV and radio broadcasts, those who have grown up with the internet and mobile phones as a God-given right are already embracing the brave new world of digital consumption.

The facts are that digital methods of communication and marketing are faster, more versatile, practical and streamlined, so it is perhaps unsurprising that once the technology became available we began quickly moving into the digital age. The good news is that digital offers just as much potential to marketers as it does to consumers CITATION Ter11 l 1033 (Irwin, 2011 ).

The bottom line is, the digital age is here, and those businesses that fail to adapt to the new marketing climate are at great risk of going extinct sooner rather than later CITATION Ter11 l 1033 (Irwin, 2011 ).

Section 2.4 further expands on the benefits of digital marketing by comparing it to traditional marketing.

Challenges Facing Digital MarketersToday’s digital marketers are faced with numerous challenges that can make managing the virtual world a convoluted endeavor. These challenges include:
Proliferation of digital channels. Consumers use multiple digital channels and a variety of devices that use different protocols, specifications and interfaces – and they interact with those devices in different ways and for different purposes.

Intensifying competition. Digital channels are relatively cheap, compared with traditional media, making them within reach of practically every business of every size. As a result, it’s becoming a lot harder to capture consumers’ attention.

Exploding data volumes. Consumers leave behind a huge trail of data in digital channels. It’s extremely difficult to get a handle on all that data, as well as find the right data within exploding data volumes that can help you make the right decisions.

The set-up cost of a website is too high. Further, more time is spent on choosing attractive layout for the website.

There are several customers still not aware of internet. Some people prefer buying products on store instead of buying it online.

The rule of trading in internet changed rapidly. It needs constant attention and surveillance to make sure the marketing strategy really works.

When it comes to online, you need to be aware of fraudulent activities and online scam.

Spamming is one of the prime challenges for online marketing and confidential data can be easily hacked.

Digital Marketing vs. Traditional MarketingClearly the world of technology, digital marketing and social media is having a significant impact on how we behave socially, act as consumers and how we do business so it could be fair to say that any business that does not adapt to the new era of marketing and communications is in danger of losing out It could be that a blended strategy of traditional and digital marketing can still yield returns for your business.

The following are 11 benefits of Digital Marketing v. Traditional Marketing:
1. Level playing field:  Any business can compete with any competitor regardless of size with a solid digital marketing strategy.  Traditionally a smaller retailer would struggle to match the finesse of the fixtures and fittings of its larger competitors.  Online, a crisp well thought out site with a smooth customer journey and fantastic service is king – not size.

2. Reduced cost: Your business can develop its online marketing strategy for very little cost and can potentially replace costly advertising channels such as Yellow Pages, television, radio and magazine CITATION Kha14 l 1033 (Khan, 2014).

3. Simple to measure: Unlike traditional methods you can see in real time what is or is not working for your business online and you can adapt very quickly to improve your results.  For measuring traffic to your site you can use Google Analytics to measure specific goals you want to achieve for your website or blog and most packaged email marketing solutions provide good insight into how many people are opening, reading and converting from your emails CITATION Kha14 l 1033 (Khan, 2014).

4. Real time results: you don’t have to wait weeks for a boost to your business like you would have to waiting for a fax or form to be returned.  You can see the numbers of visitors to your site and its subscribers increase, peak trading times, conversion rates and much more at the touch of a button.

5. Refinement of your strategy:   Basically anything that you capture in your customer journey can be reported on and honed for greater success at the fraction of the cost of traditional marketing.  Marketing online enables you to refine your strategy at any point in time and see any improvements or opportunities for further refinement almost instantaneously.

6. Brand Development: A well maintained website with quality content targeting the needs and adding value to your target audience can provide significant value and lead generation opportunities.  The same can be said for utilizing social media channels and personalized email marketing CITATION Kha14 l 1033 (Khan, 2014).

7. Far greater exposure: your business can be seen anywhere in the world from one marketing campaign, the cost to do this using traditional methods would be considerable.  Plus once you have optimized the key word search content in your website you should see a long-term return on your investment and will be fairly low cost to maintain your ranking.

8. Viral: how often do your sales flyers get passed around instantly by your customers and prospects?  Online, using social media share buttons on your website, email and social media channels enables your message to be shared incredibly quickly, just look how effective it is for sharing breaking news.  If you consider the average Facebook user has 190 friends of which an average of 12% see their liked posts – your one message has actually been seen by 15 new prospects, now imagine a number of them also like and share your message and their friends do the same?  Mind blowing isn’t it.  However a word of caution, bad news can travel much quicker so make sure you have a risk management strategy to tackle negative press as soon as it is circulated.

9. Not Intrusive: Most people hate receiving sales mailshots or phone calls at inconvenient times on stuff that they have little interest in.  Online people get the choice to opt in or out of communications and often it are relevant because they were the ones searching for it in the first place.  Also, have you ever got frustrated receiving a regular email on a topic that interests and adds value to you?  Nor me so don’t underestimate the power of market segmentation and tailored marketing.

10. Greater engagement: With digital marketing you can encourage your prospects, clients and followers to take action, visit your website, read about your products and services, rate them, buy them and provide feedback which is visible to your market.   So it doesn’t take long for good publicity to enhance the prospects of your business CITATION Kha14 l 1033 (Khan, 2014).

11. Customization: Digital marketing offers the opportunity to customize messages and ads sent to specific customers based on their characteristics and buying behavior. This will give the message a better chance in reaching its objectives by transmitting relevant information that may influence the prospective customers’ behavior and buying decision.

Small Business DefinitionWhat are SMEs? SME stands for Small to Medium Enterprise.

However, what exactly an SME or Small to Medium Enterprise depends on who’s doing the defining. Depending on the country, the size of the enterprise can be categorized based on the number of employees, annual sales, assets, or any combination of these. It may also vary from industry to industry CITATION War16 l 1033 (Ward, 2016).

Small to Medium Enterprises make up the vast majority of businesses in most countries.

According to U.S. Census Bureau Data from 2012, SMEs account for 99% of all firms in the U.S. and 48.4% of total employment, making them hugely important for economic growth, innovation, incentives and more favorable tax treatment. Depending on the country, governments may use a range of policies to encourage the growth of SMEs CITATION War16 l 1033 (Ward, 2016).

Internet/Smart phones Trends and StatisticsThe mobile Internet is thoroughly dynamic, as prices continues to fall, usage and penetration continue to rise. The trend that mobile Internet penetration is increasing faster than overall Internet penetration highlights the importance of the mobile Internet for users who are increasingly driving Internet growth CITATION Int15 l 1033 (Society, 2015).
Figure 1 shows the latest statistics concerning penetration of Internet in Middle East.

Figure 1: Internet Penetration in the Middle East for December 31, 2014left1931035Source: CITATION Int151 l 1033 (Stats, Internet Usage Statistics and Population Statistics in Middle East, 2015).

00Source: CITATION Int151 l 1033 (Stats, Internet Usage Statistics and Population Statistics in Middle East, 2015).

As shown in figure 1, Middle East countries is above the World Average in Internet penetration where it reached 48.1 % whereas the world’s average is 42.30% and the rest of the world is 42.1%. This indicates that internet usage is very high in Middle East countries. Figure 13 represents the Internet users in the Middle East as of December 31, 2014.

Figure 2: Internet Users in the Middle East as at December 31, 2014-571513305175Source: CITATION Int151 l 1033 (Stats, Internet Usage Statistics and Population Statistics in Middle East, 2015)00Source: CITATION Int151 l 1033 (Stats, Internet Usage Statistics and Population Statistics in Middle East, 2015)

As shown in figure 2, Iran dominates Middle East countries in Internet Usage (46.80 million users) while Lebanon Internet users are about 3.30 million.

Lebanon Penetration in Internet usage is 4,545,007 Internet users on June/2016, 75.9% of the population, according to IWS. Whereas, there was 1,587,060 Internet users on December 31, 2012. Also, there are 3,100,000 Facebook users in Lebanon on June/2016, 51.8% of the total populationCITATION Int152 l 1033 (Stats, Middle East Internet Stats,Lebanon, 2016).

A recent report on social media penetration in 2014 in the MENA presented findings by AP, Deloitte, Northwestern University and local governmental institutions.

The report found that several MENA countries enjoy high levels of social media penetration, often considerably higher than the global average. This is particularly true in those countries where smartphone take-up is more advanced.
Social media is also fast becoming a primary source of news for some, and it may overtake TV in the news trust index during 2015. Although 59% of people in the UAE, Saudi Arabia and Egypt use social media to discover the majority of their news, TV remains the primary channel for breaking news.

Figure 3: Top 5 social networking sites used
Source: CITATION Bag15 l 1033 (Baghdadi, 2015)Let’s take a closer look at how the major social media channels performed:
1. Facebook Ranks First in Users and Ad Revenues
Facebook remained the most popular social media channel in the MENA with 74 million users (including 42 million daily users).

65% of users accessed their account via mobile.

95% of internet users in Lebanon are on Facebook.

Facebook mobile ads generated 66% of all ad revenues in the region by Q3 2014 (up by 49% from 2013).

2. Twitter Market Dominated by Saudi Arabia
Twitter is still Facebook’s closest rival in the MENA with over 35 million users.

32% of internet users in Lebanon use Twitter.

Tweets in Arabic represented 6% of global Tweets in 2013, coming in 5th ahead of French (2%) but behind English (34%), Japanese (16%), Spanish (12%) and Malay (8%).

3. Instagram Is the Leading Generator of Social Networking Traffic
On some mobile networks, Instagram consumes nearly twice the bandwidth of Facebook.

29% of internet users in Lebanon have Instagram.

The UAE government launched its own Instagram account in November 2014, following its YouTube channel.

2015 Prediction: Instagram usage will continue to grow rapidly. In some markets like Lebanon, it will overtake Twitter for the first time.

4. WhatsApp Is Still Gaining Ground
WhatsApp reached 15 million active users in the MENA (including 69% of teens), compared to 7 million users in North America (including 4% of teens).

The app is Qatar’s leading social media service and started replacing SMS activities.

2015 Prediction: Messaging apps like WhatsApp and Snapchat will grow rapidly thanks to their closed nature which appeals to many users’ privacy concerns. They already account for 10% of mobile data traffic.

5. YouTube and Video Have a Special Appeal
YouTube was the single largest source of mobile traffic in the region, accounting for over 25% of downstream traffic.

The MENA is the only region where a huge portion of YouTube videos are viewed on mobiles. Source: CITATION Bag15 l 1033 (Baghdadi, 2015)Mobile Sector in LebanonThe use of mobile technologies is increasingly widespread through Asian countries such as Lebanon, UAE, and Kuwait…etc. Many applications can be observed among the users, by using Simple Text Message (SMS), telephone conversation, Internet access and multimedia services (MMS), depending on the capability of each mobile phone technology and service rendered. Many applications have been made through using many developments in the mobile technology such as: GBPS, WAP, the 3G and 4G. In Lebanon mobile communications market have two operators: MIC1 (Alfa Company), and the MIC2 (Touch Company).

As for Smartphone usage in Lebanon, a survey conducted by opinion polling firm IPSOS-STAT shows that Smartphone penetration in Lebanon was 70% in 2014 among the total population, relative to penetration rates of 63% in 2013 and 36% in 2012, as Byblos bank ‘Lebanon This Week’ reported CITATION Dig15 l 1033 (Fidelity, 2015).

Figure 4: Smartphone Penetration in 2014
Source: CITATION Dig15 l 1033 (Fidelity, 2015).

According to the survey, smart-phone penetration in the UAE stood at 91% last year, in Kuwait was 86%, in Saudi Arabia reached 79%, and in Egypt stood at 12%. Lebanon’s Smartphone penetration rate rose by 34 percentage points between 2012 and 2014, the second highest increase among the five Arab countries with available data, behind only Kuwait (+37 percentage points) CITATION Dig15 l 1033 (Fidelity, 2015).

E-Readiness Assessment of LebanonE-readiness is a measure of the quality of a country’s Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure and the ability of its consumers, businesses and governments to use ICT to their benefits CITATION Eco09 l 1033 (Unit, 2009). Lebanon is one of the Middle East countries that are highly involved in ICT concerns. To assess Lebanon readiness to ICT, e-readiness ranking model will be used to examine Lebanon Information and Communication Technology infrastructures. E-readiness ranking model consists of six categories on which consumers, businesses, and government in Lebanon will be assessed.

Connectivity and Technology Infrastructure. Connectivity measures the extent to which individuals and businesses can access mobile networks and the Internet. In Lebanon, many companies are providing the internet services, ADSL provided by OGERO Company, WAP and 3G/ 4G provided by the two telecommunication companies in Lebanon TOUCH and Alfa companies, Cyberia, IDM, Terranet, DSL, Mobi, and many other internet providers operating in Lebanon. Many internet providers have become affordable where each is competing to provide internet in the lower price and better service to gain more market share of clients. We can conclude that internet is accessible by, and affordable to almost every home in Lebanon regardless of their income.

Business Environment. Refers to the strength of economy, political stability, taxation, competition policy, the labor market, and opened to trade and investment.
Social and Cultural Environment. This category is measured by the following criteria: Educational Level, Internet literacy, degree of entrepreneurship, technical skills of workforce, and degree of innovation.
Legal Environment. The degree to which legal frameworks that have a direct impact on the use of digital technology to inform, communicate and transact business.

Government Policy and Vision. This category refers to the assessment of governments’ activities in this area, and their ability to lead their countries towards a digital future.

Consumer and Business Adoption. The amount that businesses and consumers spend on accessing ICT services, the extent and range of Internet features used by individuals, their online purchasing activity, and the extent to which individuals and businesses use the online public services that have been made available.

Digital Divide:
Even as technology becomes more affordable and internet access seems increasingly ubiquitous, a “digital divide” between rich and poor remains. The rich and educated are still more likely than others to have good access to digital resources according to the Pew Internet ; American Life Project. The digital divide has especially far-reaching consequences when it comes to education. For children in low-income school districts, inadequate access to technology can hinder them from learning the tech skills that are crucial to success in today’s economy CITATION Sul16 l 1033 (Sultan, 2016).

According to the Stanford University, digital divide can best be defined as:
“The growing gap between the underprivileged members of society, especially the poor, rural, elderly, and handicapped portion of the population who do not have access to computers or the internet; and the wealthy, middle-class, and young Americans living in urban and suburban areas who have access.” CITATION Sta1 l 1033 (Stanford, 1998)According to the 2012 Pew Report “Digital Differences”, only 62% of people in households in America whose income is below $30,000 a year used the internet, while in those earning $50,000-74,999 that percentage jumped to 90 CITATION Sul16 l 1033 (Sultan, 2016).

Smart phones have helped bridge the divide, as they provide internet access to populations previously at a digital disadvantage. Pew reports that, among smart phone owners, “young adults, minorities, those with no college experience, and those with lower household income levels” are more likely to access the internet primarily through their phones CITATION Sul16 l 1033 (Sultan, 2016).

Dimensions of the Divide
Broadly speaking, the difference is not necessarily determined by the access to the Internet, but by access to ICT (Information and Communications Technologies) and to Media that the different segments of society can use. With regards to the Internet, the access is only one aspect, other factors such as the quality of connection and related services should be considered. Today the most discussed issue is the availability of the access at an affordable cost and quality.

The digital divide is not indeed a clear single gap which divides a society into two groups. Researchers report that disadvantage can take such forms as lower-performance computers, lower-quality or high price connections (i.e. narrow band or dialup connection), difficulty of obtaining technical assistance, and lower access to subscription-based contents CITATION Int152 l 1033 (Stats, Middle East Internet Stats,Lebanon, 2016).

Bridging the Gap
The idea that some information and communication technologies are vital to quality civic life is not new. Some suggest that the Internet and other ICTs are somehow transforming society, improving our mutual understanding, eliminating power differentials, realizing a truly free and democratic world society, and other benefits.

There are a variety of arguments regarding why closing the digital divide is important. The major arguments are the following: CITATION Int152 l 1033 (Stats, Middle East Internet Stats,Lebanon, 2016)1. Economic equality
Many think that the access to the Internet is a basic component of civil life that some developed countries aim to guarantee for their citizens. Telephone is often considered important for security reasons. Health, criminal, and other types of emergencies might indeed be handled better if the person in trouble has an access to the telephone. Another important fact seems to be that much vital information for people’s career, civic life, safety, etc. are increasingly provided via the Internet. Even social welfare services are sometimes administered and offered electronically.2. Social mobility
Some believe that computer and computer networks play an increasingly important role in their learning and career, so that education should include that of computing and use of the Internet. Without such offerings, the existing digital divide works unfairly to the children in the lower socioeconomic status. In order to provide equal opportunities, governments might offer some form of support.

3. Democracy
Some think that the use of the Internet would lead to a healthier democracy in one way or another. Among the most ambitious visions are that of increased public participation in elections and decision making processes.

4. Economic growth
Some think that the development of information infrastructure and active use of it would be a shortcut to economic growth for less developed nations. Information technologies in general tend to be associated with productivity improvements. The exploitation of the latest technologies may give industries of certain countries a competitive advantage.

Rural areas access
The accessibility of rural areas to the Internet is a test of the digital divide. But nowadays there are different ways to eliminate the digital divide in rural areas. Use of Power lines (PLT and PLC) and satellite communications offer new possibilities of universal access to the Internet, and lack of telephone lines will not limit access. Lower access prices are required to bridge the ICT divide.

CITATION Int152 l 1033 (Stats, Middle East Internet Stats,Lebanon, 2016).

Advertising is one of the most expanding and evolving sectors in an economy. Even as one advertising platform’s growth slows or loses relative share, another takes its place, gaining people’s attention with new modes of digital interaction, mobility, or social networking. While technology has always been a driver of change in this sector increasing digitization has escalated the speed of its transformation.
Globally, total advertising spending has been on the rise, increasing by a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.25% since 2008, where it is forecasted to reach $1.56T, by the end of 2015. During that period, digital advertising was the fastest growing segment, with a GAGR of 15.93%, to reach $167.76B in 2015.

In Lebanon, there is a consensus among market players that the size of the digital advertising market stands between $22M and $24M in 2015. Specifically, Ziad Nassar, co-founder of AddBloom, mentioned that the size of the market is $24M, while the Arab Media Forum report expects it to be T $22.7M.
Due to low barriers to entry, the digital advertising sector is highly competitive, with more than 400 companies. The market players are either big advertising agencies that expanded and added online marketing to their services, or new start-ups dealing only with digital advertising.
Demand for digital advertising has been increasing, at a compounded annual growth rate of 55.59% since 2009, according to Arab Media Forum. Digital advertising has showed the highest compounded growth, followed by magazine and television with much lower CAGRs of 2.53% and 2.49%, respectively. The other categories of advertising saw declines in the budget allocated to them. In total, advertising spending has increased by a compounded annual rate of 2.62% to $174.6M.
Despite this drawback in infrastructure, digital advertising is cannibalizing other marketing platforms and is expected to take over customary forms. Of all categories, digital advertising was the only one to see its share of total advertising spending steadily rising, from 1.07% in 2009 to 13% in 2015. According to Tina Sioufi, digital planner at Leo Burnett, even though online marketing is perceived to dominate other forms of advertising, traditional advertising would not disappear. Different categories of marketing will become intertwined.

Digital marketing is still in its booming phase, it has not reached its peak yet. According to Mr. Nassar, over the next 5-10 years, digital advertising will grasp a 50% share of total advertising spending in Lebanon as new generations take over family businesses and progressive CEOs look to expand their companies.
Higher demand for digital advertising is pulling the revenues of digital advertising companies up, especially that of small startups. For instance AddBloom is averaging a 90% year on year growth in revenues, and is expecting a triple digit growth in the tears to come. Therefore, these companies have plans of expansions by acquiring larger offices in Lebanon, hiring additional personnel to support the growth, and even expanding outside Lebanon.
Smart App readiness in LebanonUser Acceptance or adoption of information technology is defined as “the act of receiving information technology use willingly” CITATION Yag10 l 1033 (Yaghoubi, 2010). Consumer Technology adoption has been explored and studied in a variety of domains. During the past decades, several theories have been emerged that offer new insights into precisely analyzing consumer behaviors of adopting new technologies. Among these theories, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and the theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the diffusion of Innovation (DOI), and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The UTAUT2, a theoretic framework being derived from the TAM, the UTAUT2 is a powerful predicting framework being proposed by Venkatesh et al CITATION Kao14 l 1033 (Kao, 2014). This technique can effectively explain and analyze people’s technology acceptance behaviors for Information technology products.

Technology Acceptance ModelDavis (1989) proposed the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in order to explain the adoption and use of information technology. According to TAM, perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU) are the two key determinants of technology adoption. There are six components of Technology Acceptance Model proposed by Davis in 1989. Those components are as follows (Figure 1): Perceived Usefulness (PU); Perceived Ease of Use (POU); External Variables (EV); Attitude (A); Behavioral Intention (BI); Actual Behavior (AB).

According to Davis (1989), PU is the level up to which individual users expect that the adoption of a specific technology could enhance their job performance. On the other hand, he referred that PEOU is the degree to which individual users believed that using the considered technology would be simple to use. Additionally, both PU and PEOU influence the attitude of individuals towards the use of a specific technology, while attitude and PU influence the individual’s behavioral intention (BI) to use the technology. PU is influenced by PEOU as well, because PEOU can indirectly influence the acceptance of technology through PU, while BI is also considered to have influence on subsequent adoption behavior CITATION Dav89 l 1033 (Davis, 1989).Behavioral Intention (BI) refers to conscious plans in order or not to perform some specified future behaviorCITATION War l 1033 (Warshaw ; Davis, 1985).
Behavioral Intention (BI) refers to conscious plans in order or not to perform some specified future behavior CITATION War l 1033 (Warshaw ; Davis, 1985).

External Variables (EV) are used to determine undefined externally controllable factors CITATION Dav89 l 1033 (Davis, 1989).

According to Davis, beliefs influence behavior only via their indirect influence on attitudes, and he found that attitudes do not fully mediate the impact of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on behavior CITATION Dav89 l 1033 (Davis, 1989).

Actual Behavior (AB) refers to final actions of user guided by behavioral intention. In other words, when it comes to technology acceptance model, actual behavior refers to usage, non-usage of particular technology, and ways of using it.

Figure 5: Original TAM proposed by Davis
Source: CITATION Dav89 l 1033 (Davis, 1989)Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT)An innovation is “an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or another unit of adoption” (Rogers, 1995, p. 11). Diffusion, on the other hand, is “the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system” (Rogers, 1995, p. 5). Therefore, the IDT theory argues that “potential users make decisions to adopt or reject an innovation based on beliefs that they form about the innovation” (Agarwal, 2000, p. 90).

IDT includes five significant innovation characteristics: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability. Relative advantage is defined as the degree to which an innovation is considered as being better than the idea it replaced. This construct is found to be one of the best predictors of the adoption of an innovation. Compatibility refers to the degree to which innovation is regarded as being consistent with the potential end-users’ existing values, prior experiences, and needs. Complexity is the end-users’ perceived level of difficulty in understanding innovations and their ease of use. Trialability refers to the degree to which innovations can be tested on a limited basis. Observability is the degree to which the results of innovations can be visible by other people. These characteristics are used to explain end-user adoption of innovations and the decision-making process.

Theoretically, the diffusion of an innovation perspective does not have any explicit relation with the TAM, but both share some key constructs. It was found that the relative advantage construct in IDT is similar to the notion of the PU in TAM, and the complexity construct in IDT captures the PEU in the technology acceptance model, although the sign is the opposite (Moore ; Benbasat, 1991). Additionally, in terms of the complexity construct, TAM and IDT propose that the formation of users’ intention is partially determined by how difficult the innovation is to understand or use (Davis, et al., 1989; Rogers, 1995). In other words, the less complex something is to use, the more likely an individual is to accept it. Compatibility is associated with the fit of a technology with prior experiences, while the ability to try and observe are associated with the availability of opportunities for relevant experiences. These constructs relate to prior technology experience or opportunities for experiencing the technology under consideration. Compatibility, and the ability to try and observe can be treated as external variables, which directly affect the constructs in the technology acceptance model. After the initial adoption, the effects of these three constructs could be diminished with continuous experience and reduced over time (Karahanna et al., 1999).

Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)The UTAUT was proposed by Venkatesh et.al, it is the integration framework of eight related technology acceptance theories. Those theories are the DOI, the TRA, the TPB, the motivation theory, the hybrid model of TPB and TAM, the original TAM, the PC utilization model, and the social cognitive theory. Dimensions of this method are: Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Social influence, facilitating conditions, intention to use and the usage behavior.

UTAUT2 ModelThe UTAUT2 model was extended from the UTAUT and was focused on individual perspectives in technology adoptions. The new model is significantly an enhanced one for explaining variances in users’ technology intention. Dimensions of the UTAUT2 are: Performance expectancy, Effort expectancy, Social influence, Facilitating conditions, Hedonic motivation, Price value, habit, and behavioral intention CITATION Kao14 l 1033 (Kao, 2014). All these dimensions play a significant role in exploring the user behavior.

The purpose of the research is to explore the possible factors influencing individuals’ adoption to use banking application. The UTAUT2 framework can provide more insights on this work, thus, the UTAUT2 model will be introduced as the theoretic foundation of the research. This model will be used to explore the influence relationships between the following dimensions: Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Easy-to-use, facilitating conditions (Information availability, quality of Internet connection), Perceived credibility, perceived enjoyment, price value, and behavioral intention on individual behavior (Figure 6).
Figure 6: Research Model2574925291909500
2066925111125 Actual Behavior
00 Actual Behavior

Source: CITATION Kao14 l 1033 (Kao, 2014).

Perceived Usefulness: is the level up to which individual users expect that the adoption of a specific technology could enhance their job performance
Perceived Ease-Of-Use: is the degree to which individual users believe that using the considered technology would be easy to use and not complex.

Perceived Credibility: The extent to which individual users believe that the considered technology offers them the security and privacy concerns.

Perceived Enjoyment: is the degree to which users find interest and enjoyment in using Smart-phones and tablets.

Facilitating Condition: is the extent to which individual users believe that an organization and a technical infrastructure exist to support the usage of the considered technology. Suitable Information availability, type of transaction offered, and quality of Internet connection.

Price Value: is the customers’ cognitive tradeoffs between the perceived benefits of the desired technology and monetary costs for using them CITATION Kao14 l 1033 (Kao, 2014).

Behavioral Intention: refers to the degree to which a person has formulated conscious plan to use or not to use the technology. The criteria to determine the behavioral intention are the positive word-of-mouth communications and service quality.

Actual Behavior: Refers to the final actions of user guided by behavioral intention. This refers to usage, non-usage of the considered technology or thinking of using it later.

1.9.5 AIDA modelEven though the world of advertising has become more and more competitive, the principle behind the ad copy remains the same. The four steps that the copywriters use in their ad to persuade the consumers to buy the products are attention factor, interest element, desire element and action element which is called as AIDA. Advertising and marketing objectives are met by the effective use of this model.

The phrase AIDA, in marketing communication was coined by American advertising and sales pioneer Elias. St. Elmo Lewis in the late 1800s. The model talks about the different phases through which a consumer goes before going to buy a product or service. According to him, most of the marketers follow this model to fetch more consumers for their product. Marketers use this model to attract customers to purchase a product. This model can be seen widely used in today’s advertisements.

The acronym AIDA stands for Attention, Interest, Desire and Action. These are the four stages that a consumer goes through when watching or viewing an advertisement.  According to Lewis, first and foremost, the role of an advertisement is to attract the customers. Once an ad grabs attention, it has to invoke interest towards the product in the minds of the consumers. After creating an interest, the ad has to bring desire in consumers mind to use the product and finally the consumer has to take a favorable action towards the product by ultimately purchasing the product CITATION Com14 l 1033 (Communication Theory, 2014).
AIDA offers a coherent framework for writers to follow, and increases the chances of getting the desired response CITATION DeM13 l 1033 (DeMers, 2013).

Attention
The attention portion of the marketing message occurs at the beginning and is designed to give the prospects a reason to take notice. Presenting a shocking fact or statistic that identifies a problem which can be solved by the product or service is one common method of gaining attention. Other methods can include asking a thought-provoking question or using the element of surprise. The purpose is to give the prospects a reason for wanting to learn more CITATION Jos16 l 1033 (Joseph, 2016). Attention is usually grabbed by the use of image, color, layout, typography, size, celebrity or model CITATION Com14 l 1033 (Communication Theory, 2014).

The first hurdle for any piece of writing is to capture the reader’s attention. To get their attention, start with a concept that’s deeply relevant and timely to the audience being reached.
What kind of solution is this piece offering to their problem? Is it the introduction to an idea that could shift the way that they think about their lives, or a product that they can go out and buy? How, specifically, will it solve their issue?
What’s important is to take the time to find the language that resonates, based on a deep understanding of the audience. The headline and the lead paragraph are the two most important areas to capturing the prospect’s attention CITATION DeM13 l 1033 (DeMers, 2013).

Interest
Once attention is grabbed, it’s necessary to create interest in the viewer’s mind so that they will read more about the brand being advertised. By the use of an attractive sub head, interest can be invoked CITATION Com14 l 1033 (Communication Theory, 2014). Explain to the recipients how the problem identified in the attention step is adversely affecting their lives. A demonstration or illustration can help the recipients to further identify with the problem and want to actively seek possible solutions. By personalizing the problem, customers are more likely to listen CITATION Jos16 l 1033 (Joseph, 2016).

This links back to the idea of having a strong profile of whose being targeted with products or services before diving into the selling. The key here is to use information, persuasion techniques, and as much proof as possible to hold the reader’s attention captured. By deepening the connection with the prospect and crafting a piece that informs, educates, and entertains around one of their most pressing problems, an emotional reaction will most likely follow CITATION DeM13 l 1033 (DeMers, 2013).

Desire
In the desire stage, the objective is to show the prospects how the product or service can solve their problem. That can be done by explaining the features of the product or service and the related benefits and by demonstrating how the benefits fulfill the customers’ need. A common advertising process is the “before and after” technique, such as when a cleaning product makes a soiled item look brand new. If done effectively, the prospects should now have the desire to make a purchase CITATION Jos16 l 1033 (Joseph, 2016).

The element of desire is usually created by the use of body copy where you write in detail about the necessity of buying the brand, thereby explaining the features of the brand, facts and figures CITATION Com14 l 1033 (Communication Theory, 2014).

Action
Now that the desire to make a purchase has been created, the final step is to persuade the prospects to take immediate action. In a one-on-one sales process, this is the time to ask for the sale. In the advertising world, techniques involve creating sense of urgency by extending an offer for a limited time or including a bonus of special gift to those who act within a specific time frame. Without a specific call to action, the prospect may simply forget about the offer and move on. CITATION Jos16 l 1033 (Joseph, 2016)Towards the end, the contact information of the brand will be given where they expects the viewers to take action immediately. It can be in the form of shop address, toll free numbers or website address CITATION Com14 l 1033 (Communication Theory, 2014).

Also, the design aspects of the calls to action must be thought about: does the layout, button structure, and more support the prospect’s taking action? If it’s at all difficult to figure out how to take the next step, people often won’t CITATION DeM13 l 1033 (DeMers, 2013).

Chapter SummaryDigital advertising is the promotion of products or brands via one or more forms of electronic media. It offers many advantages over traditional advertising as it has reduced cost and greater exposure, it offers real time tracking of results, it allows brand development and strategy refinement, it has low barrier of entry, it allows customizations of messages, and finally takes advantage of consumer trends towards the digital world. However, marketers should be aware of the challenges facing digital world by providing security and fighting spams.

SME’s definition varies from country to country. The most agreed upon definition is any business with a number of employees less than 100. However, SMEs constitutes a major component of any economy and are considered vastly important to the growth of economies and societies equally.

Lebanon remains a healthy environment when it comes to internet and mobile penetrations. Penetration in Internet usage is 3,336,517 Internet users on Dec/2014, 80.4% of the population, whereas smartphone penetration in Lebanon was 70% in 2014 among the total population.

Consumer Technology adoption has been explored and studied in a variety of domains. During the past decades, several theories have been emerged that offer new insights into precisely analyzing consumer behaviors of adopting new technologies. Among these theories, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the diffusion of Innovation (DOI), and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The UTAUT2, a theoretic framework being derived from the TAM, These techniques can effectively explain and analyze people’s technology acceptance behaviors for Information technology products.

Chapter 2 tackles the research methodology in trying to identify the research types, variables, hypotheses, and sample size.

: Research Methodology2.1 Identifying the Research ProblemAlthough each step in a marketing research project is important, problem definition is the most important step. Problem definition involves stating the general problem and identifying the specific components of the marketing research problem. It’s a broad statement of the general problem and identification of the specific components of the marketing research problem.CITATION Nar07 l 1033 (Birks & Malhotra, 2007)By asking ” Can digital marketing be more effective than traditional marketing communications in a local market?” the present research would focus on the effectiveness of digital marketing as part or alternative to the traditional communication in the local environment being investigated.

Figure 7: The process of defining the problem and developing an approach.

Source: CITATION Nar07 l 1033 (Birks & Malhotra, 2007)Environmental Context of the ProblemThis research relies on primary and secondary data evaluation. Secondary data has been discusses thoroughly in the Literature Review. The context provided at the beginning sheds light on the challenges and opportunities facing SME’s in Lebanon. The primary data characterized by analyzing the circumstances affecting SMEs adoption of digital marketing, consequently obtains actual findings from practitioners and decision makers. These findings are vital to understand the capabilities and limitations of the research. While research provide information relevant to management decisions, it cannot provide solutions, because solutions require managerial creativity and judgment. According to Malhotra et al., the researcher needs to understand the nature of the decision that managers face – the marketing problem, and what they hope to learn from the research CITATION Nar07 l 1033 (Birks ; Malhotra, 2007)Marketing Decision Problem and Marketing Research ProblemThe marketing decision problem asks what the decision-maker needs to do, whereas the marketing research problem asks what information is needed and how it can best be obtained. CITATION Nar07 l 1033 (Birks ; Malhotra, 2007).

The primary objective of exploratory research is to provide insights into and an understanding of marketing phenomena. It is used in instances where the subject of the study cannot be measured in a quantitative manner or where the process of measurement cannot realistically represent particular qualitiesCITATION Nar07 l 1033 (Birks ; Malhotra, 2007). Exploratory research is used because subject of the study cannot be measured in a quantitative manner. Upon empirically determining the constructs, Conclusive Research is used to clearly identify the variables and test the hypothesis through a survey.

A mix of exploratory and conclusive research has been used in this research.

Approach to the ProblemObjective theoretical Framework
Marketing researchers should rely on theory to determine which variables should be investigated. Past research on theory development and testing can provide important guidelines on determining dependent variables (variables that depend on the values on other variables) and independent variables (variables whose values affect the values of other variables). Furthermore, theoretical considerations provide information on how the variables should be operationalized and measured, as well as how the research design and sample should be selected CITATION Nar07 l 1033 (Birks ; Malhotra, 2007).
In this research, the independent variables include: age, gender and level of education. However, the dependent variables are numerous, they are: smartphone ownership, social media apps download, social media app used the most, Whatsapp usage, Whatsapp usage rate, Response to ads received via Whatsapp, Attitude towards being notified of the shop’s offers via Whatsapp, Facebook usage, Facebook usage rate, the shop’s Facebook page followership, response to ads viewed on Facebook, shop visit rate, attitude towards being notified of offers via SMS, attitude towards following an Instagram page, and belief that promotion messages lead you to actual purchases.

Research Questions and Hypotheses
Research questions are refined statements of the components of the problem, while hypotheses are unproven statement or proposition about a factor or phenomenon that is of interest to a researcher CITATION Nar07 l 1033 (Birks ; Malhotra, 2007).
The following hypotheses have been formulated and will be tested in this research:
H1: Local rural markets respond positively to social media communications.

H2: Digital divide does impact rural local markets.

H3: Males are more engaged with social media than females.

H4: Young adults are more engaged with social media.

H5: Local market customers do not reject receiving digital communication messages.

H6: Digital communications messages positively lead to actual purchases
H7: Consumers responds actively to digital media when it includes a sales promotion.
Research DesignA research design is a framework or blueprint for conducting a marketing research project. It details the procedures necessary for obtaining the information needed to structure or solve marketing research problems. Although a broad approach to the problem has already been developed, the research design specifies the details – the practical aspects – of implementing that approachCITATION Nar07 l 1033 (Birks ; Malhotra, 2007).

Figure 8: A classification of marketing research designs.

Source: CITATION Nar07 l 1033 (Birks ; Malhotra, 2007).

Approach The present project follows a quantitative exploratory approach.  Quantitative research is used to quantify the problem by generating numerical data or data that can be transformed into useable statistics CITATION Bab10 l 1033 (Babbie, 2010). Quantitative methods, has the advantage of generating more precise and accurate research findings that can be generalized CITATION Kle99 l 1033 (Klein ; Myers, 1999).  Quantitative research tends to start by formulating a hypothesis to be tested and to collect data and analyses it so as to see if the original hypothesis is supported or not (Soliman and Yousef, 2003).

Survey Technique
Survey techniques are based upon the use of structured questionnaires given to a sample of a population. Respondents may be asked a variety of questions regarding their behavior, intentions, attitudes, awareness, motivations, and demographic and lifestyle characteristics.  These questions may be asked verbally, in writing or via a computer, and the responses may be obtained in any of these forms CITATION Nar07 l 1033 (Birks ; Malhotra, 2007).

In this research, we have utilized a structured data collection, through a questionnaire distributed Face-to-Face. Questions are asked in a pre-arranged order.  They follow a fixed response alternative style that requires the respondent to select from a predetermined set of responses.

This method has many advantages.  The online survey method has several advantages such as speed, low cost, quality of response, elimination of interviewer bias, data quality, and better targeting options. Additionally, the style used allows for consistent data collection because responses are limited to the alternatives stated. The use of fixed-response questions reduces the variability in the results that may be caused by differences in interviewers
ScalingScaling involves creating a continuum upon which measured attitude example, each respondent might be assigned a number indicating a strongly favorable attitude (measured as 1), a favorable attitude (measured as 2), a neutral attitude (measured as 3), an unfavorable attitude (measured as 4) or a strongly unfavorable attitude (measured as 5).  Measurement is the actual assignment of 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 to each respondent scaling is the process of placing the respondents on a continuum with respect to their attitude towards a certain subject CITATION Nar07 l 1033 (Birks ; Malhotra, 2007).

Figure 9: A classification of scaling techniques.

Source: CITATION Nar07 l 1033 (Birks ; Malhotra, 2007).

In this research, the Likert scale have been used, an itemized non-comparative scaling technique. Named after its developer, Rensis Likert, the Likert scale is a widely used rating scale that requires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements about the stimulus objects CITATION Amo97 l 1033 (Amoo ; Friedman, June 1997). Likert scale is easy to construct, administer and understand which makes it ideal for online use.

: Results3.1 SamplingSampling Simple random sampling was based on a survey of 100 questionnaires using probability techniques. In probability sampling, sampling units are selected by chanceCITATION Nar07 l 1033 (Birks ; Malhotra, 2007). Respondents were random customers that happen to visit La Rochelle Sweets shop located in Sariin and Nabi Sheet.

Figure 10: A classification of sampling techniques.

Source: CITATION Nar07 l 1033 (Birks ; Malhotra, 2007).

3.2 Instrumentation and data collection
The survey was administered through face-to-face interview and distributed in La Rochelle Patisserie’s two branches in Bekaa region in Lebanon.

100 questionnaires out of 110 were found valid and hence included in this research.

3.3 Major FindingsDescriptive statistics:Upon using the SPSS software, several results have emerged.

Firstly, 94% of respondent own a smartphone and 92% download social media apps. This is shown by the two histograms in the figures below. Also, 91.5% have Facebook accounts and 88% use Whatsapp. It can be concluded that there are a high internet penetration percentage which can be a bit surprising giving the rural nature of the area. This forms a healthy platform for any digital marketing campaign in the region.

Figure 11: Percentage of respondent that own a smartphone.

Source: SPSS Analysis Results of Survey
Figure 12: Percentage of respondent that download social media apps.

Source: SPSS Analysis Results of Survey
Secondly, 93.2 % of respondent that use Whatsapp have indicated that they would either agree or strongly agree to be notified of offers via the app, 89.8% have also indicated that they would like to receive offers via SMS and 73.3 % of Facebook users surveyed respond to ads viewed on Facebook. This is shown in the three figures below. These results suggest that customers are very open and welcoming to any communication messages that can be transmitted digitally.

Figure 13: Respondents responses on whether they would like to receive offers via Whatsapp.

Source: SPSS Analysis Results of Survey
Figure 14: Respondents responses on whether they would like to be notified of offers via SMS.

Source: SPSS Analysis Results of Survey
Figure 15: Respondents responses on whether they respond to ads viewed on Facebook.

Source: SPSS Analysis Results of Survey
Thirdly and most importantly, 42.9 % of respondent indicated that they agree that receiving a promotion message lead to an actual purchase whereas 46.9 % remained neutral about the issue. This shows that people are accepting of promotion messages and believe them to be true and are willing to make the purchase which the last and most important part of the AIDA model. The neutral percentage of this variable present an opportunity for marketers which can be exploited as customers in this category can be nurtured and convinced so that promotion messages can become effective and lead to their goal which is making the purchase.

Figure 16: Respondent response on whether receiving a promotion message lead to make an actual purchase.

Source: SPSS Analysis Results of Survey
Fourthly, 64.4% of respondent expressed an interest in following an Instagram page should one become available. Instagram present the opportunity to reach a wider audience and communicate to customers that might not necessarily be available on Facebook or Whatsapp. This opportunity should be exploited by opening an Instagram account that should be synced with other pages and account to ensure sending a consistent message to customers across all media.

Figure 16: Respondent response on whether they would follow an Instagram page.

Source: SPSS Analysis Results of Survey
Response to ads Via Whatsapp relations to other variables:Specifically, customer’s response to ads received via Whatsapp is of particular importance. So, this variable’s dependence on several other variables has been tested to gain better understanding of factors that may affect it. These variables include: age, gender, level of education and Whatsapp usage rate.

Age:
Table 1: Chi-Square test of gender and the response to ads via Whatsapp.Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 42.672a 24 .011
Likelihood Ratio 41.653 24 .014
Linear-by-Linear Association 2.425 1 .119
N of Valid Cases 88 Source: SPSS Analysis Results of Survey
As shown in the table above, the significance is 0.011 which is below 0.05 that means there is a relation between age and response to ads via Whatsapp. Further investigation into the cross tabulation table below shows that 71.4% of respondent that have chosen “Strongly Agree” and 47% of respondent that have chosen “Agree” are between the age of 13 and 26. This suggests that the target market can be better segmented to ensure more efficiency and lesser cost in targeting the more profitable part of our segment markets.

Table 2: The contingency table of the age and the response to ads via Whatsapp.Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? Total
Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree Respondent Age less than 13 Count 0 2 0 0 0 2
% within Respondent Age 0.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0%
% within Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? 0.0% 5.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2.3%
% of Total 0.0% 2.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2.3%
13-19 Count 10 8 6 2 0 26
% within Respondent Age 38.5% 30.8% 23.1% 7.7% 0.0% 100.0%
% within Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? 35.7% 23.5% 50.0% 16.7% 0.0% 29.5%
% of Total 11.4% 9.1% 6.8% 2.3% 0.0% 29.5%
20-26 Count 10 8 2 4 2 26
% within Respondent Age 38.5% 30.8% 7.7% 15.4% 7.7% 100.0%
% within Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? 35.7% 23.5% 16.7% 33.3% 100.0% 29.5%
% of Total 11.4% 9.1% 2.3% 4.5% 2.3% 29.5%
27-33 Count 4 10 0 2 0 16
% within Respondent Age 25.0% 62.5% 0.0% 12.5% 0.0% 100.0%
% within Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? 14.3% 29.4% 0.0% 16.7% 0.0% 18.2%
% of Total 4.5% 11.4% 0.0% 2.3% 0.0% 18.2%
34-40 Count 4 6 0 2 0 12
% within Respondent Age 33.3% 50.0% 0.0% 16.7% 0.0% 100.0%
% within Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? 14.3% 17.6% 0.0% 16.7% 0.0% 13.6%
% of Total 4.5% 6.8% 0.0% 2.3% 0.0% 13.6%
41-47 Count 0 0 2 2 0 4
% within Respondent Age 0.0% 0.0% 50.0% 50.0% 0.0% 100.0%
% within Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? 0.0% 0.0% 16.7% 16.7% 0.0% 4.5%
% of Total 0.0% 0.0% 2.3% 2.3% 0.0% 4.5%
More than 48 Count 0 0 2 0 0 2
% within Respondent Age 0.0% 0.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0%
% within Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? 0.0% 0.0% 16.7% 0.0% 0.0% 2.3%
% of Total 0.0% 0.0% 2.3% 0.0% 0.0% 2.3%
Total Count 28 34 12 12 2 88
% within Respondent Age 31.8% 38.6% 13.6% 13.6% 2.3% 100.0%
% within Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
% of Total 31.8% 38.6% 13.6% 13.6% 2.3% 100.0%
Source: SPSS Analysis Results of Survey
Highest Degree Received:
As shown in the table below, the significance is 0.015 which is lesser than 0.05, this means that there is a relation between the degree received and the response to ads via Whatsapp.
Table 3: Chi-Square test of education and the response to ads via Whatsapp.Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 36.198a 20 .015
Likelihood Ratio 47.407 20 .001
Linear-by-Linear Association 3.042 1 .081
N of Valid Cases 88 Source: SPSS Analysis Results of Survey
Further investigation into the contingency table indicates that 77.6% of those who indicated “Strongly Agree” and 58.8% of those who indicted “Agree” are in the baccalaureate and bachelor’s degree categories. This reinforces previous conclusions about age segmentation as customers falling in these education categories tend to have lots in common with those aged between 19 and 26. The lifestyle of these segments reinforces the use of Whatsapp and present higher responses which means that messages can have a better effect and influence than in other segments of the market.

Table 4: The contingency table of the education and the response to ads via Whatsapp.Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? Total
Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree Highest Degree Received No Degree Count 0 2 0 2 0 4
% within Highest Degree Received 0.0% 50.0% 0.0% 50.0% 0.0% 100.0%
% within Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? 0.0% 5.9% 0.0% 16.7% 0.0% 4.5%
% of Total 0.0% 2.3% 0.0% 2.3% 0.0% 4.5%
Brevet Count 6 6 0 0 0 12
% within Highest Degree Received 50.0% 50.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0%
% within Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? 21.4% 17.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 13.6%
% of Total 6.8% 6.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 13.6%
Baccalaureate Count 12 14 8 0 2 36
% within Highest Degree Received 33.3% 38.9% 22.2% 0.0% 5.6% 100.0%
% within Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? 42.9% 41.2% 66.7% 0.0% 100.0% 40.9%
% of Total 13.6% 15.9% 9.1% 0.0% 2.3% 40.9%
Bachelor’s Degree Count 10 6 2 6 0 24
% within Highest Degree Received 41.7% 25.0% 8.3% 25.0% 0.0% 100.0%
% within Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? 35.7% 17.6% 16.7% 50.0% 0.0% 27.3%
% of Total 11.4% 6.8% 2.3% 6.8% 0.0% 27.3%
Masters Count 0 2 2 2 0 6
% within Highest Degree Received 0.0% 33.3% 33.3% 33.3% 0.0% 100.0%
% within Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? 0.0% 5.9% 16.7% 16.7% 0.0% 6.8%
% of Total 0.0% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 0.0% 6.8%
Ph. D. Count 0 4 0 2 0 6
% within Highest Degree Received 0.0% 66.7% 0.0% 33.3% 0.0% 100.0%
% within Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? 0.0% 11.8% 0.0% 16.7% 0.0% 6.8%
% of Total 0.0% 4.5% 0.0% 2.3% 0.0% 6.8%
Total Count 28 34 12 12 2 88
% within Highest Degree Received 31.8% 38.6% 13.6% 13.6% 2.3% 100.0%
% within Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp? 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
% of Total 31.8% 38.6% 13.6% 13.6% 2.3% 100.0%
Source: SPSS Analysis Results of Survey
Gender:
Respondent’s gender appears not be in relation to their response to ads received via Whatsapp since the significance is 0.079, bigger than 0.05. Gender does not form a healthy bases for segmentation as customers do not show differences in behavior across different genders when it comes to response to ads via Whatsapp.

Table 5: Chi-Square test of the gender and the response to ads via Whatsapp.Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 8.374a 4 .079
Likelihood Ratio 9.425 4 .051
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.067 1 .302
N of Valid Cases 88 Source: SPSS Analysis Results of Survey
Whatsapp usage rate:
Respondent’s usage rate appears not be in relation to their response to ads received via Whatsapp since the significance is 0.196, bigger than 0.05. Even though common sense might contradict this conclusion, usage rate does not necessarily lead to higher response to ads as heavy users tend to skeptical of ads messages via Whatsapp or might be over occupied with other chats and might not have the time to read and respond to ads.

Table 6: Chi-Square test of the Whatsapp usage rate and the response to ads via Whatsapp.Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 20.572a 16 .196
Likelihood Ratio 25.179 16 .067
Linear-by-Linear Association 4.460 1 .035
N of Valid Cases 86 Source: SPSS Analysis Results of Survey
3.3 Testing the HypothesisThe results of the analysis of the questionnaire survey revealed major findings.

From the research analysis conducted in this paper, 5 hypotheses out of 7 are found to be accepted as follows:
H1: Local rural markets respond positively to social media communications.

H4: Young adults are more engaged with social media.

H5: Local market customers do not reject receiving digital communication messages.

H6: Digital communications messages positively lead to actual purchases
H7: Consumers responds actively to digital media when it includes a sales promotion.
It can be concluded that local rural markets have a high penetration rate and respond positively to digital communication message as it showed a higher tendency in young adults to actively use social media and be responsive to ads. Also, the research showed a surprisingly high percentage of customers that seek to be notified of offers via Whatsapp, SMS or Facebook which confirms the hypothesis that they do not reject receiving digital marketing communications. In addition, customers tend to believe that promotion message lead to an actual purchase and finally they respond more actively to ads messages when they include promotion offers.

: ConclusionThe present research started out by a simple yet highly relevant question: Can digital marketing be more effective than traditional marketing communications in a local market? Based on previous empirical research and several theories discussing consumers acceptance of technology, several hypotheses have been formulated and tested throughout the study.

Findings in this research not only shed a light on surprising high levels of internet and social media penetrations, but also revealed a high degree of response towards ads sent through the different digital mediums and specifically Whatsapp. This forms a healthy platform for any digital marketing campaign in the region.

93.2 % of respondent that use Whastapp have indicated that they would either agree or strongly agree to be notified of offers via the app, 89.8% have also indicated that they would like to receive offers via SMS and 73.3 % of Facebook users surveyed respond to ads viewed on Facebook. These results suggest that customers are very open and welcoming to any communication messages that can be transmitted digitally.

The majority of respondents indicated that they either believe that receiving a promotion message lead to an actual purchase or remained neutral about the issue. This shows that people are accepting of promotion messages and believe them to be true and are willing to make the purchase which the last and most important part of the AIDA model. The neutral percentage of this variable present an opportunity for marketers which can be exploited as customers in this category can be nurtured and convinced so that promotion messages can become effective and lead to their goal which is making the purchase.

Instagram present the opportunity to reach a wider audience and communicate to customers that might not necessarily be available on Facebook or Whatsapp. This opportunity should be exploited by opening an Instagram account that should be synced with other pages and account to ensure sending a consistent message to customers across all media.

Through the study, customer’s response to ads received via Whatsapp is studied its relation to several other variables have been tested to gain better understanding of factors that may affect it. This investigation revealed segmentation potential among the target market and concluded that through age and education level segmentation, higher responses were found to Whatsapp ads which ensures more efficiency and lesser cost in targeting the more profitable part of our segment markets.

It must also be noted that several other variables can be studied and linked to the demographic variables at hand as this research presents a notable amount of studies that can conducted at higher degree requirements such as a masters level.

: RecommendationsDigital marketing is no longer just a complement or “an extended arm” to traditional communication but is becoming the main arm itself. Businesses should start reaching their customers and meet them where they really exist which the digital playground. Digital communications provide a golden opportunity to limited budget businesses that cannot afford traditional communications.
Even though the majority of respondent expressed an interest in receiving promotion messages digitally, marketers must be wary of sending irrelevant contents. All messages sent across the different mediums must remain consistent and attractive. The frequency of messages sent daily must also be carefully selected so that customers keep looking forward to receiving them.

Further studies can be made to gain better insights into customers’ preferences and likings and design suitable, tailored and customized messages that reflect the individuality of customers and have a better chance at reaching their intended goals.

Whenever it comes to digital, privacy is paramount. Customers’ permission is essential before sending any message and it must be monitored to ensure the relevance and the effectiveness of the message. Marketers must also be aware of the trends and changing tastes of consumers and must also accept that what customers might find relevant and acceptable today might become intrusive and irrelevant tomorrow. The option to unsubscribe must always be available to customers to ensure the messages sent do not backfire and turn loyal customers into enemies.

A close eye must be kept on emerging new websites and social media apps to ensure the business’s presence on all fronts and this might mean abandoning certain social media facets that might no longer be used by customers.
The world of business is ever changing so researches and studies should be conducted on a regular bases to keep businesses up-to-date with their customers and the environment surrounding them.

: LimitationsLimited time and resources prevented the present research from increasing sample size beyond 100 respondents. A larger sample is recommended to accurately measure and better plan the digital marketing campaign that can be used in rural markets.

Additionally, it is also very important to note that several other key variables can be taken into considerations to understand consumers’ pattern of behavior and attitudes towards digital marketing.

Furthermore, this research uses questionnaire to plan the digital marketing campaign in rural environment. It might be useful in future studies to complement quantitative findings with deeper qualitative feedback that can be obtained by using observations and focus groups.

AppendixSurvey
Thank you for taking part in this survey. This survey is intended to design a digital marketing campaign for La Rochelle Patisserie by measuring its customers’ e-readiness and overall evaluation of the store’s performance. Please be as accurate and as truthful as possible while answering the questions. This survey aims at improving our performance by serving you better. Please choose one answer only. We assure you that any information you wish to share with us through this survey will be strictly confidential and will NOT be passed to a third party. The expected completion time is approximately 2 minutes.

What is your age?
less than 13
13-19
20-26
27-33
34-40
41-47
48+
What is your gender?
Male
Female
What is highest degree of education received?
No degree received
Brevet
High School Baccalaureate
Bachelor’s Degree
Master’s Degree
Ph. D.

Do you own a smartphone?
Yes
No
Do you download Social Media apps?
Yes
No
Which Social Media apps do you use most?
Facebook
Whatsapp
Instagram
Twitter
YouTube
Do you use Whatsapp?
Yes
No
If yes, how often do you use Whatsapp (a day)?
Less than 30 min
30 min-1 hour
1 hour – 3 hours
3 hours – 5 hours
More than 5 hours
Would you respond to ads received via Whatsapp?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neither agree or disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Would you like to be notified of our offers via Whatsapp?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neither agree or disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree

Do you have a Facebook account?
Yes
No
If yes, how much time do you spend on Facebook (a day)?
;30 min
30 min-1 hour
1 hour – 3 hours
3 hours – 5 hours
; 5 hours
Do you follow our page on Facebook?
Yes
No
Would you respond to ads viewed on Facebook?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neither agree or disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
How often do you visit our shop?
Less than once a month
Once a month
Once a week
Once a day
More than once a day
Would you like to be notified of our offers via SMS?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neither agree or disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Should we start an Instagram page, would you follow us?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neither agree or disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Did receiving a promotion message lead you to make an actual purchase?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neither agree or disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
On a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the most positive, how important do you consider the quality of our products is? (encircle the desired number)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Extremely Unimportant Extremely Important
On a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the most positive, how important do you consider the price of our products is? (encircle the desired number)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Extremely Unimportant Extremely Important
On a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the most positive, how do you rate your overall buying experience from our store? (encircle the desired number)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Hated It Loved it
Would you be willing to pay extra money for better quality of sweets?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neither agree or disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Would you buy from elsewhere if you found lower prices for a similar quality of sweets?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neither agree or disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
What is the most important factor that made you buy from our shop?
Quality
Price
Customer service
Location
Variety of products
Image of our brand
In your opinion, what area needs improvement?
Quality
Price
Customer service
Variety of products
Image of our brand
No area needs improvement.

Thank you!
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Babbie, E. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. London: Wadsworth Cengage.

Baghdadi, A. (2015, April 01). The MENA’s Social Media Milestones in 2014. Retrieved from Arab Net: http://news.arabnet.me/the-menas-social-media-milestones-in-2014/
Bazuki. (2015, September 2). Why is digital marketing so important for your small business? Retrieved from Contents Without Borders: http://contentwithoutborders.com/tag/small-business/
Birks, D. F., & Malhotra, N. K. (2007). Marketing Research. Pearson Education Limited.

Chaffey, D. (2012). Digital Marketing. Pearson. Retrieved from Statistical Analysis System: http://www.sas.com/en_us/insights/marketing/digital-marketing.html
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DeMers, J. (2013, August 5). How To Use The AIDA Formula To Boost Your Content Marketing Strategy. Retrieved from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/jaysondemers/2013/08/05/how-to-use-the-aida-formula-to-boost-your-content-marketing-strategy/3/#7b703b1359ff
Fidelity, D. (2015, August 15). Smartphone usage in Lebanon on the rise. Retrieved October 11, 2015, from Digital Fildelity: http://www.digitalfidelity.info/Mobile/87734/Smartphone-usage-in-Lebanon-on-the-rise
Irwin, T. (2011 , August 05). The Importance of Digital Marketing. Retrieved from Business Zone: http://www.businesszone.co.uk/community-voice/blogs/tcii/the-importance-of-digital-marketing
Joseph, C. (2016). A.I.D.A Model in Marketing Communication. Retrieved from Chron: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/aida-model-marketing-communication-10863.html
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Khan, A. S. (2014, June 12). Benefits or Advantages of Digital Marketing. Retrieved from Linked In: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140612184227-110373355-benefits-or-advantages-of-digital-marketing
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Omoniyi, D. O. (2015, April 28). Benefits of Digital Marketing. Retrieved from Linked In: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/benefits-digital-marketing-omoniyi-david-oladele
Rouse, M. (2016). digital marketing . Retrieved from Tech Target: http://searchcrm.techtarget.com/definition/Digital-marketing
S.A.G.E. (2015, september 19). The Important Role of Mobile Banking in Wealth Management Industry. Retrieved october 10, 2015, from S.A.G.E: http://www.sage.ch/subfooter/intelligence/mobile/
Society, I. (2015). Global Internet reports 2015. Retrieved October 11, 2015, from Internet Society: http://www.internetsociety.org/globalinternetreport/?gclid=CNiO5YzkusgCFYhAGwodXz8Pzg
Stanford, U. (1998). Digital Divide. Retrieved from Stanford University: https://cs.stanford.edu/people/eroberts/cs181/projects/digital-divide/start.html
Stats, I. W. (2015, July 24). Internet Usage Statistics and Population Statistics in Middle East. Retrieved October 11, 2015, from Internet World Stats: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats5.htm
Stats, I. W. (2016, September 12). Middle East Internet Stats,Lebanon. Retrieved October 11, 2015, from Internet Usage Statistics Usage and Population Stats: http://www.internetworldstats.com/middle.htm#lb
Sultan, L. (2016). Digital Divide: The Technology Gap between the Rich and Poor. Retrieved from Digital Responsability: http://www.digitalresponsibility.org/digital-divide-the-technology-gap-between-rich-and-poor/
Unit, E. I. (2009). E-readiness rankings 2009 the usage imperative. London: The Economist.

Velasco, M. (2013, August 6). Why Digital Marketing is Important for Business . Retrieved from Career Addict: http://www.careeraddict.com/why-digital-marketing-is-important-for-business
Ward, S. (2016, November 7). SME Definition (Small to Medium Enterprise). Retrieved from The Balance: https://www.thebalance.com/sme-small-to-medium-enterprise-definition-2947962
Warshaw, P. R., & Davis, D. F. (1985). Disentangling Behavioral Intention and Behavioral. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 213-228.

Yaghoubi, N.-M. (2010, September). Factor Affecting the Adoption of Online banking. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(9), 159-162.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Amoo, R., & Friedman, H. (June 1997). Overall evaluation of rating scales: an assessment. International Journal of Marketing Research, 301-310.

Babbie, E. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. London: Wadsworth Cengage.

Baghdadi, A. (2015, April 01). The MENA’s Social Media Milestones in 2014. Retrieved from Arab Net: http://news.arabnet.me/the-menas-social-media-milestones-in-2014/
Bazuki. (2015, September 2). Why is digital marketing so important for your small business? Retrieved from Contents Without Borders: http://contentwithoutborders.com/tag/small-business/
Birks, D. F., ; Malhotra, N. K. (2007). Marketing Research. Pearson Education Limited.

Chaffey, D. (2012). Digital Marketing. Pearson. Retrieved from Statistical Analysis System: http://www.sas.com/en_us/insights/marketing/digital-marketing.html
Communication Theory. (2014). Communication Theory. Retrieved from AIDA Model: http://communicationtheory.org/aida-model/
Davis, D. F. (1989). Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of. MIS Quarterly, 319-340.

DeMers, J. (2013, August 5). How To Use The AIDA Formula To Boost Your Content Marketing Strategy. Retrieved from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/jaysondemers/2013/08/05/how-to-use-the-aida-formula-to-boost-your-content-marketing-strategy/3/#7b703b1359ff
Fidelity, D. (2015, August 15). Smartphone usage in Lebanon on the rise. Retrieved October 11, 2015, from Digital Fildelity: http://www.digitalfidelity.info/Mobile/87734/Smartphone-usage-in-Lebanon-on-the-rise
Irwin, T. (2011 , August 05). The Importance of Digital Marketing. Retrieved from Business Zone: http://www.businesszone.co.uk/community-voice/blogs/tcii/the-importance-of-digital-marketing
Joseph, C. (2016). A.I.D.A Model in Marketing Communication. Retrieved from Chron: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/aida-model-marketing-communication-10863.html
Kao, C. -Y.-S. (2014, November 21). UTAUT2 Based Predictions of Factors Influencing the Technology Acceptance of Phablets by DNP. Retrieved October 13, 2015, from Hindawi Publishing Corporation: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/603747/
Khan, A. S. (2014, June 12). Benefits or Advantages of Digital Marketing. Retrieved from Linked In: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140612184227-110373355-benefits-or-advantages-of-digital-marketing
Klein, H. K., ; Myers, M. D. (1999). A Set of Principles For Conducting and Evaluating Interpretive Field Studes in Information Systems. mis quarterly.

Omoniyi, D. O. (2015, April 28). Benefits of Digital Marketing. Retrieved from Linked In: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/benefits-digital-marketing-omoniyi-david-oladele
Rouse, M. (2016). digital marketing . Retrieved from Tech Target: http://searchcrm.techtarget.com/definition/Digital-marketing
S.A.G.E. (2015, september 19). The Important Role of Mobile Banking in Wealth Management Industry. Retrieved october 10, 2015, from S.A.G.E: http://www.sage.ch/subfooter/intelligence/mobile/
Society, I. (2015). Global Internet reports 2015. Retrieved October 11, 2015, from Internet Society: http://www.internetsociety.org/globalinternetreport/?gclid=CNiO5YzkusgCFYhAGwodXz8Pzg
Stanford, U. (1998). Digital Divide. Retrieved from Stanford University: https://cs.stanford.edu/people/eroberts/cs181/projects/digital-divide/start.html
Stats, I. W. (2015, July 24). Internet Usage Statistics and Population Statistics in Middle East. Retrieved October 11, 2015, from Internet World Stats: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats5.htm
Stats, I. W. (2016, September 12). Middle East Internet Stats,Lebanon. Retrieved October 11, 2015, from Internet Usage Statistics Usage and Population Stats: http://www.internetworldstats.com/middle.htm#lb
Sultan, L. (2016). Digital Divide: The Technology Gap between the Rich and Poor. Retrieved from Digital Responsability: http://www.digitalresponsibility.org/digital-divide-the-technology-gap-between-rich-and-poor/
Unit, E. I. (2009). E-readiness rankings 2009 the usage imperative. London: The Economist.

Velasco, M. (2013, August 6). Why Digital Marketing is Important for Business . Retrieved from Career Addict: http://www.careeraddict.com/why-digital-marketing-is-important-for-business
Ward, S. (2016, November 7). SME Definition (Small to Medium Enterprise). Retrieved from The Balance: https://www.thebalance.com/sme-small-to-medium-enterprise-definition-2947962
Warshaw, P. R., ; Davis, D. F. (1985). Disentangling Behavioral Intention and Behavioral. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 213-228.

Yaghoubi, N.-M. (2010, September). Factor Affecting the Adoption of Online banking. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(9), 159-162.