In this paper

In this paper, we analyzed the problem of for security related issues while storing the data on cloud. To prevent and implement unauthorized to a user’s data on cloud we devised an efficient system architecture which supports efficient operations on data like modification of data, deleting or appending the data. We implemented ip triggering which triggers a mail to the user’s registered email address on unauthorized access of data. On the second level, we have used a password login system with a key to prevent access of files other than the sole owner. Even if the key is compromised the system detects unauthorized access by comparing the ip against its database and if they don’t match successfully redirecting it to the dummy file thus preventing the users’ data from being corrupted or modified.

The area of cloud computing is still in bloom so still many vulnerabilities are not discovered and has decent amount of challenges. The most hopeful development which we can expect from cloud computing is to provide the user with decent amount of control of their own data. Automating the system to check for any modifications in data by using hashing algorithms and calculating checksum for checking with any modifications attack like SHA-checksum.

There is a variety of different definitions of social class

There is a variety of different definitions of social class. This is due to overwhelming evidence as there are different ways of defining health and ill health in terms of social class. Social class affects life expectancy as well as incidence of ill health and death. Evidence suggests that those in higher social class have a longer life expectancy and are healthier than those in lower social groups.
Studies such as Black Report and Acheson Report explain the relationships between social and environmental factors and health and ill health. The Black Report shows differences in health and ill health between the ruling class, middle class, working class and the underclass.
One explanation of differences in levels of illness and life expectancy is the statistical artefact explanation. Research from The Black Report argued that individuals in the working class and the underclass were more likely to be the elderly and people working in manual or more hazardous jobs such as construction. It is therefore likely for them to have a higher level of ill health than those in higher classes that work in office jobs. This suggests that the structure of age as well as what type of jobs are taken by the working class are the reasons for differences in ill health.
Another explanation is natural selection. This explanation suggests illness, infant mortality and low life expectancy are caused by poor health in lower classes, absenteeism and lack of energy needed for success. However, this has been criticised by others because evidence suggests that ill health is caused by deprivation.
Also, cultural and behavioural explanations. This focuses on the behaviour and ways of living of those in low classes. Evidence suggests that individuals in lower classes are more likely to smoke and drink heavily, eat more junk food as well as not exercise efficiently. These can potentially cause chronic illness such as heart disease, diabetes or even cancer. On the other hand, many of these individuals smoke or drink in order to deal with their difficult position in society.
Lastly, material or structural explanations. This claims that social groups that have a short life expectancy, infant mortality is high and they suffer poor health is because of inequalities in wealth and income. Low incomes is linked to poor diets and housing as well as dangerous employment such as construction. These have led to differences in health.

1

1.0. Introduction
This chapter of the concept paper presents the background of the study, problem statement, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, scope of the study, significance of the study and the conceptual framework
1.1. Background to the study
Education is a gadget used to effect countrywide progress. Educational aims stand fixed out in the National Plan on Education in relations of their application to the requirements of the individual and society. The National Strategy is established with aims and objectives, to facilitate educational growth in the country. These goals and intents invite the school head to provide vital roles include enhancing real administrative skills and styles to manage colleges, improve job performance among teachers so students’ academic performance is boosted (Fika, I. Ibi, M. and Aji, B., 2015).
It is not astonishing that there is massive demand for operative administration of secondary schools. A good number of school heads haven’t considered the different administrative techniques which determine students’ academic performance in the country. Hence, some of them seem to find it tremendously problematic to successfully lead their schools (Akinnibagbe , 2002).
With the fast changing world, it is impossible for people of preferred managerial technique or type to embrace all knowledge, awareness or power to realise success (Muthondu G.W., 2007). These longstanding forms of management provide power and are a heading to one or few individuals involved in administrative positions. Leadership being gender requires that prospective leaders be trained to adapt to the fluctuating society and make an effort to teach and model different management techniques which will most effectually lead various institutions to achieve set goals.
Students’ performance in examinations is because of different factors; which include provision of physical facilities, classroom size, effective school discipline policies, administrative support and effective leadership. As several studies in Botswana, Nigeria, and Papua New Guinea concur to this (Muli, M.M , 2005). Good administration brings about necessary guidance in the school, clarity of direction and rewards to ensure effective performance of students.
1.2. Problem statement
Administration at work in educational institutions is a dynamic process where an individual is not only accountable for the group’s errands, but also actively seeks the cooperation and assurance of all the group members in achieving group goals in a particular perspective (Aji, B.M, 2014). Administration ensures that students perform to the maximum, since it ensures that tasks are accomplished and the responsible parties assigned for greater strengthening of the institution with emphasis put on recognition, service provision and motivation (Balunywa, W.S. , 2000). However, of all the above contributions of school administration towards academic performance, performance tends to be alarming and wanting in schools as a result of managerial techniques used which influences the organisational culture. Such managerial techniques are made of a set of attitudes, traits, and skills in the principals formed based on four factors: values, trusting employees, leadership orientation, and a sense of security shaped in important situations
1.3. Purpose of the study
The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of school administration on students’ academic performance in Isingiro District.
1.4. Objective of the study
i. To establish the different factors that affect students’ academic performance.
ii. To investigate the contribution of school administrators towards students’ academic performance
iii. To determine the possible measures to the challenges faced by students in Isingiro District.
1.5. Research questions
i. What are the different factors that affect students’ academic performance?
ii. What is the contribution of school administrators towards students’ academic performance?
iii. What are the possible measures to the challenges faced by students in Isingiro District?
1.6. Scope of the study
The study will focus on effect of school administrators on students’ academic performance The study is limited to school administrators as the independent variable and students’ academic performance as the dependent variable. The study will be carried out in Isingiro District. This so because of the limited finances and with government aided schools in place within the district whose academic performance tends to fluctuate each and every year.
1.7. Significance of the study
The results of this study will be valuable to researchers and scholars, as it would form a basis for further research. Scholars will use this study as a basis for discussions on school administration and students’ academic performance as it will provide the scholars with empirical studies that they will use in their studies. The study will also add to the body of knowledge in the education discipline by bridging the existing gap. This study will make several contributions to both knowledge building and practice improvement with several policies recommendation put forward
1.8. Conceptual framework
Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Mediating/intervening variable

Source: Researcher 2018
?
2.0. Literature review
Principalship is a critical management skill involving the ability to encourage group of people towards common goal. Leadership focuses on the development of followers and their needs. Managers exercising transformational administrative style focusing on the development of value system of employees, their motivational level and moralities with the development of their skills, (Sashkin, M. ;Sashkin, M. , 2003). Different administrative styles of a school principal which include initiative, consideration and participatory structure of management (Omolayo B., 2009)
Initiative structure of administration is the extent to which a principal defines managers and group member roles, initiates actions, organizes group activities and defines how task are to be accomplished by the group. A leader in this structure defines his goals and facilitates group movement toward them. This administrative style decides everything and tries to manipulate the followers into approving his ideas on how the school should function. A leader in this group does not give trust to any member of the group.
Lee (1995) reported that, the Initiative structure of management leadership style results in the group members reacting aggressively and apathetically in the work environment. This often results in unending industrial disputes in an organization hence affecting the overall achievement of the organizational goals and objectives. Mwalala, (2008) observed that Initiative structure and harsh climate leads to poor performance of students. Initiative structure of management, also known as autocratic leaders, provide clear expectations for what needs to be done, when it should be done, and how it should be done. There is also a clear division between the leader and the followers.
In their study, Lewin and Caillords (2001) found that participative administrator, also known as democratic leadership, is generally the most effective administrative style. Participatory structure leadership not only offers guidance to group members, but they are allowed to participate in the group and allow input from other group members. Hence, children in this group were less productive than the members of the Initiative structure group, but their contributions were of a much higher quality. Participative administrator encourages group members to participate, but retain the final say over the decision-making process. Group members feel engaged in the process and are more motivated and creative who in turn improve their performance as well as the performance of the organization.
3.0. Methodology
The researcher will adopt a descriptive research survey for this study it is suitable for the study as it gives the researcher the opportunity of obtaining respondents’ opinion from the entire population sampled. The total population of the study is made up of 5 Secondary Schools in Isingiro district during the 2015/2017 academic session. The population is chosen for investigation due to the researcher’s interest. Simple Random Sampling method will be used. The Schools in the Zone are grouped according the three divisions in the district. Simple Random Sampling method will be used to select the Schools under study. The sample size will comprise of 60 teachers from the secondary schools being studied which will constitute the number of questionnaires obtained after distribution.
A Structured Questionnaire will be used for data collection process. The questionnaire items will be validated to ascertain its suitability for use in data collection. The whole content of the questionnaire and its structure will critically be examined and corrections made where required and its reliability determined using a test –retest method.
Data collected will be edited upon the receipt of the questionnaires to ensure accuracy and consistency of the information given by the respondents. Data will be entered in the computer using a SPSS version 20, descriptive, principal component, correlation and regression analysis will be used to establish the relationship between the study variables. Responses from the questionnaire will be analysed using the descriptive statistics of frequency counts, percentage, and inferential statistics and descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages will also be used in analysing demographic variables and research questions.
For data analysis and presentation, the data collected will be edited and checked to ensure uniformity, accuracy, consistency and comprehensiveness. The structured questionnaires will be coded, questions grouped, tabulated and frequencies run according to the objectives of the study, the data will be analysed and the information presented using statistical frequency tables, graphs and pie – charts.
?
4.0. References
Aji, B.M. (2014). Leadership styles of head of department and academic staff performance: Unpublished Master Dissertation, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
Akinnibagbe . (2002). The relationship between leadership and follower in-role performance and satisfaction with the leader: The mediating effects of empowerment and trust in the leader. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 28,(1), 4-19.
Balunywa, W.S. . (2000). A hand Book of Business Management. Kampala: Ugandan Press. .
Fika, I. Ibi, M. and Aji, B. (2015). Leadership styles of head of department and academic staff performance in the University of Maiduguri: Maiduguri Journal of Education Studies, 8(1) 83-94.
Lee D. (1995). Leadership theory, application and skill development: USA: South- West College Publishing.
Lewin, K ; Caillords, f. (2001). Financing secondary education in development: strategic for sustainable growth: Paris International Institute for Education Planning. UNESCO.
Muli, M.M . (2005). Effects of Head Teachers Management Styles on Performance in Physics at K.S.C.E. Examination in Mutomo Division, Kitui District: Unpublished M. ed. Project, University of Nairobi.
Muthondu G.W. (2007). “Teachers’ Perception of Female Head Teachers’ Leadership Styles in Public Secondary School in Nairobi Province: Unpublished Master Dissertation, University of Nairobi. .
Mwalala D.B. . (2008). Influences of Head Teachers’ Leadership Styles on K.C.S.E Performance in Public Secondary School in Taita District: Unpublished Master Dissertation, University of Nairobi. .
Okumbe, J. A. (1998). Educational Management: Theory and Practice. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press.
Omolayo B. (2009). Effects of leadership styles on job related tension and psychological sense of community in work organization: case study of four organization in Lagos State, Nigeria: Bangladesh. E.J Social. 4,(2)133-157.
Sashkin, M. &Sashkin, M. . (2003). Leadership That Matters. San Francisco: BarrettKoehler Publishers Inc.

Deception is an action that has harsh consequences

Deception is an action that has harsh consequences. The action destroys honesty and leaves the people surrounding us hurt. In Frankenstein, Victor thought that he was doing some good when he created the monster in his laboratory. Victor created his monster for the betterment of humankind. It seems like he created the monster out of foolish pride or from a desire by God. However, the monster just lead to a disagreement and a family was left hurt.
Victor Frankenstein seems like a caring person; on the other hand he is the real monster himself. The actions that he took created a more victim feeling for himself. “I avoided explanation and maintained a continual silence concreting the wretch I had created,” Victor feels that his monster is a secret burden that cannot be relieved. The monster is a secret burden because no one knows that he created the monster when he was in college. Victor was not entirely responsible for his brother William death. Since, Victor created the monster and the monster was the murderer of William, so that makes Victor the real person responsible for William’s death. The traits of Victor are daring, challenging, and intelligent. Victor questions nature and everything that surrounds himself. However, one of Victor’s traits is intelligent, it was his desire that drove him to devastation.
Victor wants to feel that he is able to create life and by creating the monster it is proven. Although, he creates the monster, he is horrified by the creation and leaves the monster with a feeling of abandonment. The novel allusions this event to Adam sorrowful his fallen condition. The monster could have killed Victor’s brother, William, in a spite of revenge for leaving him alone. “I always came from my studies discontented and unsatisfied,” this explains the secret of knowledge that prompts Victor’s desire to be extensive on the secret of life.

1

1.Why was Goldman Sachs so dominant in the market during the 1990s?
Two key trends shaped the investment banking world in the late 1990s. The booming IPO markets were generating tremendous fees for banks; and the banking industry itself was rapidly consolidating. Customers were increasingly price-sensitive, and banks were betting that competitiveness correlated directly with scale and scope. Whitehead reinstated Monday morning Management Committee meetings to discuss leading strategic issues, and instituted as Goldman’s corporate code a list of fourteen business principles emphasizing teamwork, integrity, reputation, talent, and quality. Corzine and Paulson immediately reduced employee headcount and costs by slashing pay and bonuses, stabilizing the firm by the end of 1995. One important reason that Goldman can dominant in the market is the way they training their employee and develop the company culture. For develop the higher manager leadership abilities, Goldman are forcing on put their internal manger in circumstance that their can sufficiently present their talent, and if the internal manger can’t meet the requirement ,Goldman are not blame them. This kind of company culture can make employee work without much pressure and speak free. However , it also cause the higher management level didn’t give or change clear job description or work classificification. In the long term, employee who in the lower position is less motivation and energetic to work well, company culture is easy be accept by the employee but really encourage them to work harder.
2. Why is Goldman Sachs considering a more systematic approach to developing leaders?
Some Committee members proposed inviting elite academics and inspirational leaders to shoulder the bulk of the teaching load. Others countered that outside professors wouldn’t have the nuanced understanding of Goldman Sachs that they would need in order to really connect with participants, and that inspirational speakers would offer little more than entertainment. Many firms turned to unconventional sources to fill the staffing void, eventually hiring people with non-traditional business backgrounds. Goldman Sachs grew around 6,000 to 15,000 employees that included around 600 new MDs positions. Managers were interested in learning the apprenticeship dealing, but the expansion might be threatened the quality of present leaders and the consistency of the culture.  The increasingly diverse workforce challenged the strong cultures of professional service firms that historically had preferred to grow their own talent
3. What should the Leadership Development Advisory Committee include as key design features of Goldman’s new leadership development program?
As Goldman rapid expansion their business in the market , the management department think they need more talent employee come to work for them, and they need more systematics and formal approach to develop or training their leaders. According to the high growth rate in each department, put multiple department head work together is more complex, and more than that, it’s become more and more difficult to cultivate great quantities of leader to meet their requirements too. I read a article that present the four stage leadership development, I think it might can help to analysis Goldman’s case. The four stages are: mentorship program(mentor and mentee relationship that can help new –in people get into the position quickly), teamwork development program( leader from different department or people have diverse knowledge background are working together) , and senior leadership program( the personal leadership is developed in this stage ,and leaders can help company with their influent experiences). build cross-cultural leadership( this stage is aim to have employees feel confident in working with others in different cultures.)

Developing an entrepreneurial culture Developing an entrepreneurial culture is a huge labour market challenge

Developing an entrepreneurial culture

Developing an entrepreneurial culture is a huge labour market challenge. With high unemployment and large organisations shedding jobs, creating sustainable employment is vital. So many organisations have downsized, reducing their staff to an extent that will never be upped to earlier levels. Who will be creating sustainable employment in the long term? We have to develop an entrepreneurial class in SA. Mature organisations looking to compete in global markets are not creating new and higher levels of employment locally other than non-core and informal work.

Diversity challenges

We have to improve the level of diversity at senior executive level. This is allied to black economic empowerment, an imperative which needs to expand in scope and inclusiveness. In both areas, HR and executives have a key role to play to shift our organisational paradigm from compliance to commitment. Employment equity plans focus on meeting targets and timetables. An enduring challenge is to change the institutional culture of our organisations. We can achieve targets but if we are not changing the culture we won’t achieve external competitiveness. We cannot readily compete in the market place if we do not have cooperation and development in the workplace.

Aligning market driven human resource initiatives

Traditionally one thinks of employment relations largely as a two way relationship between management and employees. A more strategic view is to start with the external market. We must align whatever we do on the inside and how we do it to ensure that a customer will buy and keep buying our products or services. Employment growth and decent work are in part a function of customer demand for what firms do. Human resources management tends to forget this. There’s an overemphasis on our management employee relationship. We must therefore have an external focus. Here are some key points:
1. Customer alignment: what are we doing to attract, motivate and retain employees to achieve good customer service? Leading retail firms like Pick n Pay have focused on this and their employee development is key.
2. Leadership and talent management alignment: the extent to which HR practices are playing a role in identifying potential leaders and developing them in an innovative and strategic way.
3. Performance alignment: the extent to which performance management and reward systems explicitly align to the values of business objectives and priorities. Traditionally these have been developed in isolation.
4. Culture alignment: change management and leadership practices are inclusive and engaging participatively with the organisation’s priorities.
HR as a profession needs to address these challenges more insightfully and through bodies like the SA Board for Personnel Practice, and IPM, universities and universities of technology’s HR education, HR has established a code of professional ethics, a knowledge base and a set of competencies. Its one thing to have all the right academic qualifications, this does not guarantee HR leadership. There are a lot of HR practitioners (even an oversupply at entry level) but not enough HR leaders who’ve established credibility at board level. There is a challenge ahead to improve the credibility of HR. The profession needs to have people in it who are passionate and not just visionaries but missionaries! It is the missionaries who make things happen.

HR practitioners have to understand the following key challenges:
• They have to have a fundamental knowledge of business , they must have financial, strategic and technological capability
• They must have knowledge of state of the art HR practices
• They must move beyond change management and to change leadership , creating a new culture
• They must have a problem solving capability
• They must be willing to embrace the challenge of transformation
Innovative HR are constantly investigating and adapting leading practices that might help achieve competitive advantage, and work on how to reinvent and apply these in their own context. Like Cisco systems, they will look for new and creative ways to attract, motivate and retain people. HR are good at benchmarking, it helps them to catch up with what the leaders are doing.

HR must develop a unique value proposition, just as companies have a product brand and the real strategic challenge is to create an employer brand where the labour market will perceive the organisation as an employer of choice. It is seen to be offering something different that can’t easily be replicated by competitors. Rewards, employment equity, black economic empowerment are all a means to developing a unique value proposition.

Almost everyone enjoys seeing movies

Almost everyone enjoys seeing movies, whether they prefer action, drama, comedy, horror, romance, or any other genre. I mean, who doesn’t? Movies have become quite the pastime for people of all ages, all around the globe; it has exceeded as a habit and major entertainment in our society. Some families watch movies as an excellent source of bonding time. Films are shown in areas we can easily approach; places like the cinema, and simply in the comfort of our own home. There’s something to be said about big screen viewing; the however, our homes provide a comfortable, intimate, and common place for families of all social levels to enjoy classics or newly released films. Viewing movies at home or in a cinema is based on one’s personal preference; although, it can vary upon atmosphere, cost, timeliness and convenience.

OPERATING SYSTEM ASSIGNMENT NO

OPERATING SYSTEM
ASSIGNMENT NO.1
NAME
HAMNA SHAHID
ROLL NO.

BSE-2017-045
DEPARTMENT
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
SEMESTER
III-(B)
DATE OF SUBMISSION
3RD OCTOBER 2018
SUBMITTED TO
MAM MAHREEN
“COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT OPERATING SYSTEMS”
INTRODUCTION:
An operating system is the most important software program in every computer system. Every computer system must have an operating system to run its programs and applications. Operating system acts as an intermediary between computer user and computer hardware. The main purpose of operating system is to provide an environment under which user can execute programs conveniently and more efficiently.
Operating system performs all the functions and also controls the input output resources. For example when we give input to the system through keyboard, OS detect the input, transfer it at the RAM ,then place it in CPU for processing , whatever the output comes display it on the monitor screen.
Operating system performs many operations, some are user operations and other are OS self-operations. Some of these operations are:
It provide user interface, It manages program execution, I/O resources, time scheduling and resource allocation, it provide security and protection to the system, it allows communication, helps in file manipulation, and detect errors etc.

Different types of operating systems
Microsoft Windows:
Microsoft window operating system was produced by Microsoft Cooperation. Windows OS have built in GUI (graphical user interface). This operating system is used for pcs and laptops in school, homes, companies, offices, as well as in super-computers and embedded systems. There are about 25 main Windows OS, which have multiple editions and extra features.

The Microsoft Windows OS have many strengths like it is easy to use, it is based on GUI, all versions of Windows OS use same layout, they connect with the hardware easily and hardware supports the version of Windows OS, Windows OS provide easy access to Microsoft office and internet explorer.

It also have some weaknesses like it they have specific hardware requirements, it is closed source and user do not know how the OS is functioning, the problems in OS cannot be found out by the users. Its weakest point is its security. These systems are difficult to maintain and are more likely to be attacked by the viruses, worms and other threats.
Linux:
LINUX operating system was created by ‘Linus Torvalds’ in 1991. Linux is a free operating system can be used by any computer. This system allows its users to make changes according to their needs. It provides both GUI and CLI environment. It is an open source OS and user can modify it according to their requirements. Linux OS are more secure and are at least possibility to be effected by viruses and do not need any anti-virus software. Linux has good online support system which helps user to overcome any issue and also tell user how to improve their system. The main weakness of this OS is that it has fewer business applications.
MAC OS:
MAC OS operating system developed by Apple Inc. it is an especially designed operating system for Apple Macintosh (Mac) computers. It has a well-designed GUI environment but it setting can be changed to CLI environment through terminal app.
It has a double layer security system and a UNIX core (for best security) which do not allow the system to install viruses. It also has built in firewalls, which keep it away from hackers. It does not need any driver to connect with any Apple devices; however non apple devices can be connected through drivers. Its main weaknesses are its high cost and it can only run on Apple desktops and laptops.

There are two main types of Mac OS i.e.
Classical Mac OS (1984-2001) and OS X (2001-present).

OS X is the latest version of Mac OS, which have with changeable design which make it easier to add new features and applications.
Apple iOS:
Apple iOS operating system was developed by Apple Inc. It is the most popular smartphones operating system that runs on apple hardware including iPhones, iPad tablets, iPod etc. Its main feature is the App Store where users buys applications and download free software. Apple IOs have many security features in both its hardware and software. It uses graphical user interface (GUI) through touch screens. It is simple and easy to use and its every latest version has some new features.
MS DOS:
MS DOS is a computer operating system by Microsoft. MS DOS is abbreviation of “Microsoft Disk Operating System”. Such kind of OS deals with different disks like floppy disks, hard disks etc. It is a command line based or text based OS where all commands are written in text form, which means that the user works with an input device such as keyboard to enter data and output is received in form of plain text. There is no GUI in this OS. It has simple but not user friendly interface. This OS is helpful in management of files; creating, editing, deleting etc. Although it has few limitations like it was not multitasking, lack of memory protection, security and least stable.

Google ANDROID OS:
Android is the most popular OS in the world developed by Google. It is used in most of the smart phones and tablets. It is a modified form of Linux kernel and other open source software. Different Android mobiles phones have different graphical user interfaces. The OS uses touch screens to give input and virtual keyboard. This is an open source OS means that the developer can modify and customize it. For securing an open source system it is designed with multilayer security system that supports an open platform while protecting all the user data. As it offers free access to applications so there is a threat of getting malware or viruses which can affect the mobiles.

FEATURES WINDOWS LINUX MS DOS APPLE iOS MAC OS ANDROID OS
Ability to customize Support and connectivity for portable media Security Stability Reliability
Ease of management Cost User interface System type